Invest New Drugs 2008 Apr 31;26(2):151-8. Epub 2008 Jan 31.
US Oncology Research, Inc., Genitourinary Oncology Program, Houston, TX, USA.
Objectives: Gemcitabine (G) plus cisplatin (C) is standard care for metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelium. Pemetrexed (P), alone or in combination with G, is active in metastatic TCC. However, the safety and efficacy of P combined with GC therapy is unknown. This phase I trial was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of GC followed by P+G in patients with metastatic TCC.
Methods: Cohorts of 3 to 6 patients received escalating doses 28-day cycles (maximum 6 cycles): G 800-1,000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 15; P 400-500 mg/m2 on day 15; and C 50-70 mg/m2 on day 1. All patients received folic acid, vitamin B12, and full supportive care. The 3+3 standard phase I escalation rule was used to determine MTD.
Results: Fifteen patients registered: 13/15 white males; median age 70 years (range, 53-82); 11/15 had KPS>or=90. At dose level 0, 2/4 patients experienced unrelated DLTs, and 1 patient was replaced (completed<1 cycle). Dose escalation proceeded to dose level 1. At level 1, 4/6 patients experienced DLTs; dosing decreased to level 0 and 4/5 patients experienced DLTs. The MTD was not determined. The 2 patients that completed 6 cycles both had partial responses. Grades 3-4 hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (60%), leukopenia (20%), and febrile neutropenia (13%).
Conclusion: Adding P to the standard GC regimen as first-line therapy for metastatic TCC produced no benefit. The MTD exceeded therapeutic gemcitabine and cisplatin doses for urothelial cancer and thus the study was aborted.