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    Forgiveness, feeling connected to others, and well-being: two longitudinal studies.
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2008 Feb 6;34(2):182-95. Epub 2007 Dec 6.
    Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0751, USA.
    In two studies, the authors investigated the associations between interpersonal forgiveness and psychological well-being. Cross-sectional and prospective multilevel analyses demonstrated that increases in forgiveness (measured as fluctuations in individuals' avoidance, revenge, and benevolence motivations toward their transgressors) were related to within-persons increases in psychological well-being (measured as more satisfaction with life, more positive mood, less negative mood, and fewer physical symptoms). Moreover, forgiveness was more strongly linked to well-being for people who reported being closer and more committed to their partners before the transgression and for people who reported that their partners apologized and made amends for the transgression. Evidence for the reverse causal model, that increases in well-being were related to increases in forgiveness, was also found. However, changes in feelings of closeness toward the partner appeared to account for the associations of forgiveness with well-being, but not vice versa.

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    Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: the temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations.
    J Pers Soc Psychol 2003 Mar;84(3):540-57
    Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, New, York, USA.
    The investigators proposed that transgression-related interpersonal motivations result from 3 psychological parameters: forbearance (abstinence from avoidance and revenge motivations, and maintenance of benevolence), trend forgiveness (reductions in avoidance and revenge, and increases in benevolence), and temporary forgiveness (transient reductions in avoidance and revenge, and transient increases in benevolence). In 2 studies, the investigators examined this 3-parameter model. Initial ratings of transgression severity and empathy were directly related to forbearance but not trend forgiveness. Read More
    Rumination, emotion, and forgiveness: three longitudinal studies.
    J Pers Soc Psychol 2007 Mar;92(3):490-505
    Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0751, USA.
    In 3 studies, the authors investigated whether within-persons increases in rumination about an interpersonal transgression were associated with within-persons reductions in forgiveness. Results supported this hypothesis. The association of transient increases in rumination with transient reductions in forgiveness appeared to be mediated by anger, but not fear, toward the transgressor. Read More
    Conciliatory gestures facilitate forgiveness and feelings of friendship by making transgressors appear more agreeable.
    J Pers 2012 Apr 18;80(2):503-36. Epub 2012 Feb 18.
    Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0751, USA.
    The authors examined how conciliatory gestures exhibited in response to interpersonal transgressions influence forgiveness and feelings of friendship with the transgressor. In Study 1, 163 undergraduates who had recently been harmed were examined longitudinally. Conciliatory gestures exhibited by transgressors predicted higher rates of forgiveness over 21 days, and this relationship was mediated by victims' perceptions of their transgressors' Agreeableness. Read More
    Attitudinal ambivalence, rumination, and forgiveness of partner transgressions in marriage.
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2005 Mar;31(3):334-42
    Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, NY 14260, USA.
    Although positive and negative attitudes toward a transgressor are related to increased and decreased forgiveness, respectively, prior research has failed to investigate forgiveness among those who feel both positively and negatively toward a transgressor. Therefore, the authors examined such ambivalence and its relationship to forgiveness. It was hypothesized that spouses with ambivalent attitudes toward their partner will be less forgiving of a partner transgression because such an event is likely to prime the negative component of their ambivalence. Read More