Endothelin-1, nitric oxide, and glutamate in the normal and glaucomatous dog eye.

Vet Ophthalmol 2007 Nov-Dec;10 Suppl 1:46-52

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Purpose: To document differences in the levels of the endothelin-1 peptide, nitric oxide, and glutamate in aqueous humor and vitreous in the dog eye with spontaneous glaucoma compared to the normal dog eye.

Methods: Samples of aqueous humor and vitreous from enucleated normal eyes (n = 21) of 14 dogs and glaucomatous eyes (n = 8) of eight dogs were collected. Levels of endothelin-1, nitric oxide, and glutamate were measured by enzyme immunoassay.

Results: Endothelin-1 aqueous humor levels (mean +/- SD) increased significantly from 3.05 (+/- 1.66) pg/mL for the normal eyes to 6.22 (+/- 2.83) pg/mL for the glaucomatous eyes (P = 0.0054). The increase in vitreous from 1.83 (+/- 1.66) pg/mL for the normal eyes to 2.86 (+/- 1.31) pg/mL for the glaucomatous eyes was not significant (P = 0.0840). Nitric oxide levels (mean +/- SD) increased significantly in aqueous humor from 4.12 (+/- 2.64) microM for the normal eyes to 12.95 (+/- 14.42) microM for the glaucomatous eyes (P = 0.0141). The vitreous levels increased from 4.86 (+/- 3.92) microM for the normal eyes to 15.33 (+/- 16.22) microM for the glaucomatous eyes (P = 0.0179). Glutamate levels (mean +/- SD) decreased nonsignificantly in aqueous humor from 2.35 (+/- 3.84) microM for the normal eyes to 1.61 (+/- 0.74) microM for the glaucomatous eyes (P = 0.9377) and in vitreous from 1.37 (+/- 1.89) microM for the normal eyes to 1.02 (+/- 1.11) microM for the glaucomatous eyes (P = 0.3303).

Conclusion: Endothelin-1 and nitric oxide increased in aqueous humor and vitreous of dogs with spontaneous glaucoma while the changes in glutamate varied.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00529.xDOI Listing
January 2008

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