Exposure to arsenic causes cancer by inducing a variety of responses that affect the expression of genes associated with numerous biological pathways leading to altered cell growth and proliferation, signaling, apoptosis and oxidative stress response. Affymetrix GeneChip arrays were used to detect gene expression changes following dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) exposure to human bladder cells (UROtsa) or rat bladder cells (MYP3) and rat bladder epithelium in vivo at comparable doses. Using different experimental models coupled with transcriptional profiling allowed investigation of the correlation of mechanisms of DMA-induced toxicity between in vitro and in vivo treatment and across species. Our observations suggest that DMA-induced gene expression in UROtsa cells is distinct from that observed in the MYP3 cells. Principal component analysis shows a more distinct separation by treatment and dose in MYP3 cells as compared to UROtsa cells. However, at the level of pathways and biological networks, DMA affects both common and unique processes in the bladder transitional cells of human and rats. Twelve pathways were found common between human in vitro, rat in vitro and rat in vivo systems. These included signaling pathways involved in adhesion, cellular growth and differentiation. Fifty-five genes found to be commonly expressed between rat in vivo and rat in vitro systems were involved in diverse functions such as cell cycle regulation, lipid metabolism and protein degradation. Many of the genes, processes and pathways have previously been associated with arsenic-induced toxicity. Our finding reiterates and also identifies new biological processes that might provide more information regarding the mechanisms of DMA-induced toxicity. The results of our analysis further suggest that gene expression profiles can address pertinent issues of relevance to risk assessment, namely interspecies extrapolation of mechanistic information as well as comparison of in vitro to in vivo response.