Ann Epidemiol 2007 Nov 27;17(11):870-7. Epub 2007 Jul 27.
Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
Purpose: An explanation for the differential impact of diabetes on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in men and women is that diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share a common antecedent that differentially affects men and women. In the San Antonio Heart Study we examined the relationship between gender, the metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-MetS) and diabetes and their ability to predict CHD mortality.
Methods: Over 15.5 years, 4996 men and women 25 to 64 years of age experienced 254 cardiovascular deaths, including 121 from CHD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 410-414).
Results: At baseline, NCEP-MetS occurred more often in men than in women among those with normal glucose levels (12.3% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.05), but less often in men than in women among those with diabetes (65.7% vs. 74.4%, p < 0.05). Adjusted for age, ethnic group, and a history of CVD, relative to women with neither diabetes nor NCEP-MetS, women with both had a 14-fold (hazard ratio [HR] = 14.3 [95% confidence interval: 6.62, 30.7]) increased risk of CHD mortality, whereas men had only a 4-fold (HR = 4.21 (95% confidence interval: 2.32, 7.65]) increased risk, respectively.
Conclusion: When diabetes occurred with NCEP-MetS, gender was a strong modifier of the joint effect of diabetes and NCEP-MetS on CHD mortality.