Am J Pathol 2007 Sep 19;171(3):800-8. Epub 2007 Jul 19.
Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a cellular receptor expressed prominently on epithelial, mesangial, and endothelial cells in the kidney and on macrophages. PAR-2 is activated by serine proteases such as trypsin, tryptase, and coagulation factors VIIa and Xa. It induces pleiotropic effects including vasodilatation, increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) expression, mesangial cell proliferation, and cytokine production by macrophages. The role of PAR-2 in renal inflammation was studied in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-induced crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) using PAR-2-deficient (PAR-2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermate controls. PAR-2(-/-) mice had reduced crescent formation, proteinuria, and serum creatinine compared with wild-type mice 21 days after initiation of CGN. Glomerular accumulation of CD4(+) T cells and macrophages and the number of proliferating cells in glomeruli were similar in both groups. Glomerular fibrin deposition was significantly reduced in PAR-2(-/-) mice, and this was associated with reduced renal plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and increased renal matrix-metalloprotinase-9 activity. These results demonstrate a proinflammatory role for PAR-2 in CGN that is independent of effects on glomerular leukocyte recruitment and mesangial cell proliferation. PAR-2-mediated augmentation of renal plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and inhibition of matrix-metalloprotinase-9 activity may contribute to increased glomerular fibrin accumulation and glomerular injury in CGN.