Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan.
Ebola viruses (EBOV) and Marburg virus belong to the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The genus Ebolavirus consists of four species: Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Ivory Coast ebolavirus (ICEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV). Three species of ebolaviruses, ZEBOV, SEBOV, ICEBOV, and Marburg virus are known to be extremely pathogenic in primates and humans and cause severe hemorrhagic fever leading up to case fatality rate of some 90%, while REBOV is thought to be pathogenic in Asian monkeys but not in African monkeys and humans. Recent studies indicated several factors involved in different virulence between African EBOV and REBOV. This article reviews the history, epidemiology, and virulence of REBOV.