Breastfeeding is suggested to be a potential obesity prevention strategy, but the evidence that breast-fed infants have a lower risk of later obesity is equivocal. Fourteen studies published between 2003 and 2006 that considered the relationship between breastfeeding and risk of childhood overweight and obesity were reviewed. Three studies reported a protective effect in children (i. e., increased duration of breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of childhood overweight/obesity), 4 reported a partial protective effect (i.e., only evident in a subgroup), 6 reported no protective effect, and 1 reported a protective effect in children but not in adults. While there is some evidence that breastfeeding may help to prevent childhood obesity, it should not be viewed as the only preventative nutrition measure. In the U.S., rates of breastfeeding have risen while rates for childhood obesity have increased dramatically. This finding reinforces the view that many factors are involved in maintaining a healthy body weight.