Inhaled ethyl nitrite prevents hyperoxia-impaired postnatal alveolar development in newborn rats.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007 Aug 3;176(3):291-9. Epub 2007 May 3.

Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal-Perinatal Research Institute, University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

Rationale: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but with variable results. Ethyl nitrite (ENO) forms S-nitrosothiols more readily than does NO, and resists higher-order nitrogen oxide formation. Because S-nitrosylation is a key pathway mediating many NO biological effects, treatment with inhaled ENO may better protect postnatal lung development from oxidative stress than NO.

Objectives: To compare inhaled NO and ENO on hyperoxia-impaired postnatal lung development.

Methods: We treated newborn rats beginning at birth to air or 95% O(2) +/- 0.2-20.0 ppm ENO for 8 days, or to 10 ppm NO for 8 days. Pups treated with the optimum ENO dose, 10 ppm, and pups treated with 10 ppm NO were recovered in room air for 6 more days.

Measurements And Main Results: ENO and NO partly prevented 95% O(2)-induced airway neutrophil influx in lavage, but ENO had a greater effect than did NO in prevention of lung myeloperoxidase accumulation, and in expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1. Treatment with 10 ppm ENO, but not NO, for 8 days followed by recovery in air for 6 days prevented 95% O(2)-induced impairments of body weight, lung compliance, and alveolar development.

Conclusions: Inhaled ENO conferred protection superior to inhaled NO against hyperoxia-induced inflammation. ENO prevented hyperoxia impairments of lung compliance and postnatal alveolar development in newborn rats.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200605-662OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1994219PMC
August 2007
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