Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2007 Jul 29;53(1):134-9. Epub 2007 Mar 29.
Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Mailstop F 17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol (DBP) was used as an active flame retardant in the 1970s. It was also used as an intermediate in the preparation of insecticide formulations, pharmaceuticals and the flame retardants tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (Tris-BP) and tetrabromobisphenol A bis (2,3-dibromopropyl ether). DBP is also produced in vivo as a metabolic product of Tris-BP in humans. In 1977, sleepwear containing DBP and Tri-BP was banned because of evidence of carcinogenicity animal studies. Although the production of DBP was reduced after 1977, studies show that DBP is still detected in indoor air and dust; hence, the U.S. population may be exposed potentially to DBP. Only a few methods have been reported in the literature for assessing exposure to DBP or Tris-BP by measuring DBP in urine. These methods are based on a labor-intensive and time-consuming liquid-liquid extraction for the isolation of DBP from the urine matrix. To measure urinary DBP in humans, a fast, accurate, and sensitive method was developed with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL and extraction recovery of 96%. This method involves enzymatic cleavage of the DBP-glucuronide or sulfate conjugate, automated solid phase extraction, and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 1,4-dibromo-2-butanol as the internal standard.