A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are signaling scaffolds that contribute to various aspects of cAMP signaling. They do this by tethering protein kinase-A to specific subcellular sites, thereby focusing its activity toward relevant substrates. Recently the structural basis for these protein-protein interactions has been elucidated by x-ray crystallography. Recent reports have identified AKAPs that bind to adenylyl cyclases to regulate cAMP synthesis and that sequester phosphodiesterases to break down this second messenger locally. Another emerging aspect of AKAP function is their role in integrating cAMP signaling with other signaling pathways. For example, molecular and genetic approaches have been used to show that the neuronal anchoring protein WAVE1 integrates signaling from PKA and Cdk5 to regulate actin polymerization and cytoskeletal events.