J Phys Chem A 2006 Sep;110(38):11136-44

Department of the Applied Sciences, Narvik University College, N-8505 Narvik, Norway.

The molecular and conformational structures of 3-chloropropanoyl chloride (CH(2)Cl-CH(2)-C(=O)Cl) have been studied by using gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) data obtained at 22 degrees C (295 K) and ab initio molecular orbital (MO) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations up to the levels of MP4(SDQ) and B3LYP using larger basis sets. Normal coordinate calculations (NCA) taking into account nonlinear vibrational effects were also used in the analyses. The title compound may have up to four low-energy conformers in the gas phase, labeled according to the position of each of the two chlorine atoms in relation to the CCC propanoyl backbone, labeling the carbonyl chlorine torsion angle first: AA, AG, GG, and GA; where A is anti (ideal C-C-C-Cl torsion angle of approximately 180 degrees) and G is gauche (ideal C-C-C-Cl torsion angle of approximately 60 degrees). It has been judged from the experimental GED data and the theoretical calculations, as well as from previously published infrared (IR) studies on the molecule in both the liquid phase and in argon-trapped matrices at 10 K, that the gas phase consists of a mixture of at least three conformers: AA (most stable), AG, and GG, with the possibility of a smaller contribution (<10%) from the higher-energy GA form. The GA conformer cannot be ruled out by the GED experimental data. Relevant structural parameter values obtained from the GED least-squares refinements, with calculated ab initio MO MP2/6-31+G(2d,p) values used as constraints, were as follows (AA values with estimated 2sigma uncertainties): Bond lengths (r(h1)): r(C-C(=O)) = 1.505(4) A, r(C-CH(2)Cl) = 1.520(4) A, r(C=O) = 1.197(4) A, r(C(=O)-Cl) = 1.789(3) A, and r(C-Cl) = 1.782(3) A. Bond angles (angle(h1)): angle CCC = 111.5(11) degrees , angle CCO = 127.0(5) degrees, angle CC(O)Cl = 112.5(3) degrees, and angle CCCl = 110.3(3) degrees. Torsion angles (phi(C-C) = phi(ClCCC)): for AA, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 180 degrees (assumed for true C(s) symmetry); for AG, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = -140(5) degrees, phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 76(13) degrees; for GG, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = 46(8) degrees, phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 77(14) degrees; for GA, phi(1)(C-C(O)) = 67.9 degrees (assumed), phi(2)(C-CH(2)Cl) = 177.8 degrees (assumed). The non-AA conformers all have chiral C(1) symmetry with twice the statistical weight (multiplicity) of C(s). The MP2/6-31+G(2d,p) calculated composition (%) based on the zero-point energy (ZPE) corrected energy differences, and the statistical weights for conformers: AA/AG/GG/GA = 28/35/28/9 was assumed in the final GED refinement. The more recent literature concerning the title molecule, as well as for several related molecules, has been examined and a survey has been attempted in the present article. The new experimental results for 3-chloropropanoyl chloride are discussed and compared with the previously published findings.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp064187d | DOI Listing |

ACS Omega 2022 May 27;7(18):15411-15422. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

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}