Electrophoresis 2006 Sep;27(17):3443-51
Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Strategies for simultaneous enantioseparations of three catecholamines (DL-norepinephrine, DL-epinephrine, and DL-isoproterenol) and three structurally related compounds (DL-octopamine, DL-synephrine, and DL-norephedrine) by CZE using sulfated beta-CDs as chiral selectors were investigated. Four different separation modes were attempted: (I) using randomly sulfate-substituted beta-CD (MI-S-beta-CD) at relatively low concentrations in a high-concentration phosphate buffer at low pH in the normal polarity mode, (II) using MI-S-beta-CD at high concentrations at low pH in the reversed polarity mode, (III) using MI-S-beta-CD at moderately high concentrations in a phosphate buffer at neutral pH in the normal polarity mode, and (IV) using the single isomer heptakis(2,3-dihydroxy-6-O-sulfo)-beta-CD (SI-S-beta-CD) at low to moderately high concentrations in a high-concentration BGE at low pH in the normal polarity mode. Among them, enantioseparation of these cationic solutes was best achieved under the conditions of mode (II). In mode (II) and mode (III), temperature is an important factor affecting the enantioresolution of norepinephrine. In mode (I) and mode (IV), the use of a high-concentration BGE (150-200 mM) is crucial for effective enantioseparation of these cationic solutes with sulfated beta-CDs. Comparative studies of enantioseparations of these cationic solutes with MI-S-beta-CD and SI-S-beta-CD reveal that the sulfate substituents of MI-S-beta-CD located at the C(2)- position interact strongly with the diol moiety of catecholamines.