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    Assessment of the DNA damaging potency and chemopreventive effects towards BaP-induced genotoxicity in human derived cells by Monimiastrum globosum, an endemic Mauritian plant.

    Toxicol In Vitro 2006 Dec 20;20(8):1427-34. Epub 2006 Jul 20.
    Institute of Indoor and Environmental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Naturally occurring compounds have protective effects towards mutagens and carcinogens. The leaf extract of Monimiastrum globosum (Bois de Clous), a Mauritian endemic plant from the Myrtaceae family, was studied for its potency to induce DNA damage in human HepG2 hepatoma cells using DNA migration as a biological endpoint in the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. This was contrasted with the ability to modulate the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-dependent DNA damage in human hepatoma cells. M. globosum caused genotoxicity in HepG2 cells at concentrations exceeding 3mg fresh weight (FW) per ml cell culture in the absence of cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment of the cells with 12.2 microg FW/ml to 1.56 mg FW/ml led to a pronounced antigenotoxic effect towards BaP-induced DNA damage. DNA migration (OTM) was reduced by 66%, 81.5% and 74% for 49, 98 and 195 microg FW/ml, respectively. A U-shaped dose-response curve was derived for M. globosum indicating genotoxic effects in high doses and antigenotoxic effects in low doses. M. globosum extract had total phenolics (15 mg/g FW) with flavonoids (aglycones and conjugates: 8 mg/g FW) and proanthocyanidins (3mg/g FW) as major phenolic subclasses. The hydrolysis of conjugated flavonoids yielded the aglycones quercetin (606 microg/g FW) and kaempferol (117.8 microg/g FW) while HPLC-MS/MS analysis of the total extract revealed free flavonoids such as quercetin (19.2 microg/g FW) and myricetin (2.5 microg/g FW). The antioxidant activity of the extract of M. globosum, assessed by the FRAP and TEAC assays yielded values of 275+/-3.82 micromol/g FW and 346+/-4.2 micromol/g FW, respectively.
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