Biochemistry 2006 Apr;45(14):4339-50
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
C75 is a potential drug for the treatment of obesity. It was first identified as a competitive, irreversible inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS). It has also been described as a malonyl-CoA analogue that antagonizes the allosteric inhibitory effect of malonyl-CoA on carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), the main regulatory enzyme involved in fatty acid oxidation. On the basis of MALDI-TOF analysis, we now provide evidence that C75 can be transformed to its C75-CoA derivative. Unlike the activation produced by C75, the CoA derivative is a potent competitive inhibitor that binds tightly but reversibly to CPT I. IC50 values for yeast-overexpressed L- or M-CPT I isoforms, as well as for purified mitochondria from rat liver and muscle, were within the same range as those observed for etomoxiryl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of CPT I. When a pancreatic INS(823/13), muscle L6E9, or kidney HEK293 cell line was incubated directly with C75, fatty acid oxidation was inhibited. This suggests that C75 could be transformed in the cell to its C75-CoA derivative, inhibiting CPT I activity and consequently fatty acid oxidation. In vivo, a single intraperitoneal injection of C75 in mice produced short-term inhibition of CPT I activity in mitochondria from the liver, soleus, and pancreas, indicating that C75 could be transformed to its C75-CoA derivative in these tissues. Finally, in silico molecular docking studies showed that C75-CoA occupies the same pocket in CPT I as palmitoyl-CoA, suggesting an inhibiting mechanism based on mutual exclusion. Overall, our results describe a novel role for C75 in CPT I activity, highlighting the inhibitory effect of its C75-CoA derivative.