Cancer Lett 2007 Jan 20;245(1-2):156-62. Epub 2006 Feb 20.
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, General Hospital of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.
Gallic acid (GA) is a naturally occurring polyhydroxyphenolic compound and an excellent free radical scavenger. In this study, we examined its cytotoxic and biochemical effects on the human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line. GA caused a significant imbalance of deoxynucleosidetriphosphate (dNTP) pool sizes, indicating ribonucleotide reductase inhibition. Moreover, GA induced dose-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 cells (80microM GA led to the induction of apoptosis in 39% of cells) and attenuated progression from G0/G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle (60microM GA doubled the number of cells in G0/G1 phase from 22 to 44% when compared to untreated controls). We further determined IC(50) values of 3.5 and 4.4nM for the inhibition of cyclooxygenases I and II, respectively. When cells were simultaneously treated with GA and trimidox, another inhibitor of RR, highly synergistic growth inhibitory effects could be observed. Taken together, we identified novel biochemical effects of GA which could be the basis for further preclinical and in vivo studies.