J Nerv Ment Dis 2006 Jan;194(1):47-51
Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.
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Przegl Lek 2012 ;69(8):642-6
Zakład Medycyny Nuklearnej, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Gdańsku.
The authors overviewed the biographies of 29 medical doctors who became the heads of the state or the prime ministers of their countries. Most of them ruled in a countries of fresh or unstable democracies, most often in Asia, Africa and Latin America, three of them were bloody dictators. With the exemptions of Georges Clemenceau and Sun-Yat-Sen they were not famous as historical figures, although some were good administrators like the prime minister of Norway, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Malayan prime minister Mahatir bin Mohamad, Brasilian and Chilean presidents, Juscelino Kubitschek and Veronica Bachelet. Read More
CNS Spectr 2006 Sep;11(9):674-8; quiz 719
Neurology of Battle Creek, Battle Creek, MI 49017, USA.
In the United States, more individuals suffer disability from stroke than from any other disease, and as many as 11 of the 43 presidents have been affected. In this article, the authors review the cases of the United States presidents who have had strokes, some of which have occurred while the president was in office, having a direct effect on the country. Read More
Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994 Oct;45(10):993-1004
University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.
Objective: The author reviewed the history of American psychiatry for the first 150 years of the American Psychiatric Association's existence (1844-1994) as reflected in remarks of the association's presidents.
Methods: Presidential addresses or remarks from alternative sources were located for the 120 presidents who served the association between 1844 and 1994.
Results: The presidents' remarks on six topics-psychiatric practice, etiology of mental illness, public mental hospitals, alternatives to state hospitals (deinstitutionalization), biologic treatments, and fiscal issues were sampled and arranged chronologically. Read More
Harv Rev Psychiatry 2012 Sep-Oct;20(5):247-58
Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.
The nineteenth century witnessed growing alarm among professionals and the public in the United States and Europe that the number of people in mental hospitals was rapidly rising. Whether this growth was caused by an increase in the incidence or prevalence of mental illness or by other factors has been debated for over 150 years. Those who believe that mental illness did increase attribute the change mainly to a rise in alcoholism, functional psychoses, syphilis, and disorders related to senescence. Read More