J Pak Med Assoc 2005 Nov;55(11):478-82
Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
Objective: To evaluate out come of allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT) in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CMC) at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi from April 2002 to October 2004.
Methods: Twenty-two patients with CML underwent allogeneic SCT from HLA matched siblings. Patients were divided into standard (n=14) and high-risk (n=8) groups. Patients were subjected to conditioning regimens consisting of Busulphan and Cyclophosphamide. Cyclosporin, Prednisolone and Methotrexate were given for GvHD prophylaxis. All donors were subjected to PBSC harvest after G-CSF therapy for five days. All received G-CSF from Day+5 until ANC >0.5 x 10(9)/l.
Results: The median age of the patients was 29 years (range 7-53 years) with a male to female ratio of 6.3:1. Engraftment was achieved in all patients. Median time to achieve neutrophil (ANC 0.5 x 10(9)/l) and platelet (20 x 10(9)/l) recovery was 13 days and 12 days respectively. Median stay in hospital was 18 days. Acute GvHD (Grade-II-IV) was observed in eleven patients (50%) while chronic GvHD was seen in four patients (18%). One patient relapsed 8 months post transplant. Two patients (9%) developed Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) liver. One patient had haemorrhagic cystitis. Four patients (18%) had post transplant infectious complications, which included pseudomonas septicemia, aspergillosis, tuberculous pleural effusion and herpes zoster. Overall mortality was 22.7% (n=5). The major causes of mortality were VOD liver, GvHD grade IV, Pseudomonas septicaemia and aspergillosis. Overall survival was 77.2% (n=17) and disease free survival was (n=16) 72.7%. Follow up ranges were from 23 to 828 days (median 212 days).
Conclusion: The preliminary results of SCT in this small series of patients with CML are very encouraging. To improve the long-term survival it is imperative that patients are transplanted early after diagnosis and conditioning regimens are selected carefully.
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