Graft versus host disease in allogeneic stem cell transplantation--3 1/2 years experience.

J Pak Med Assoc 2005 Oct;55(10):423-7

Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the frequency and outcome of graft versus host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplant in haematological disorders at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi from July 2001 to December 2004.

Methods: Eighty-six patients with various haematological disorders namely aplastic anaemia (n=32), b-Thalassaemia (n=25), CML (n=22), ALL (n=3), AML (n=1) Fanconi's anaemia (n=2), and Gaucher's disease (n=1), underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. All patients received cyclosoprin, prednisolone and short course of methotrexate as GvHD prophylaxis. The patients who developed acute GvHD > grade-II or chronic extensive GvHD received steroids at a starting dose of 2 mg/kg body weight along with gradual increase in cyclosporine dosage (max dose 12.5 mg/kg).

Results: The overall incidence of acute GvHD grade-II to IV was 44.2% (n=38/86) where as the incidence of chronic extensive GvHD was 14% (n=12/86). Acute GvHD was 68% (n=17/25) in beta-Thalassaemia, 50% (n=11/22) in CML, 50% (n=2/4) in Acute Leukaemias and 25% (n=8/32) in Aplastic Anaemia. Chronic GvHD was 25% (n=1/4) in Acute Leukaemias, 18.8% (n=6/32) in Aplastic Anaemia, 18.2% (n=4/22) in CML and 4% (n=1/25) in beta-Thalassaemia. The overall survival in acute GvHD was 84.2% (n=32) where as the overall survival in chronic GvHD was 50% (n=6). The overall mortality in acute GvHD was 15.8% (n=6) and 50% in chronic GvHD (n=6).

Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality due to severe acute and chronic GvHD remains high despite standard prophylaxis against GvHD. New strategies are needed to prevent and treat GvHD.

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October 2005

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