Role of isoniazid prophylaxis for prevention of tuberculosis in haemopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

J Pak Med Assoc 2005 Sep;55(9):378-81

Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the role of isoniazid prophylaxis in prevention of tuberculosis among allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

Methods: This study was conducted at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Center Rawalpindi, Pakistan from July 2001 to October 2003. Patients suffering from various haematological disorders undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation were included in the study. The demographic information, primary diagnoses and relevant investigations were recorded. Patients had negative tuberculin skin tests and chest X-Ray at pre-transplant assessment. First 25 patients (group I) did not receive isoniazid prophylaxis while the next 25 (group II) were given isoniazid in a dose of 5-10 mg/kg (maximum 300 mg/day). Isoniazid prophylaxis was started on day-1 and continued for 6 months post transplant. The patients developing tuberculosis were treated with rifampicin, ethambutol, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide during first 3 months followed by 2 drugs for a total duration of 12 months. Minimum follow up in group I and II was 783 and 403 days respectively.

Results: There was significant difference (p < 0.001) in frequency of tuberculosis between two groups. In group I, four patients developed Tuberculosis (frequency 16%) whereas none of the patients in group II had the disease. Out of these four cases 3 had extrapulmonary disease. One patient died two weeks after the start of anti tuberculosis treatment while others successfully completed the treatment.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis in stem cell transplant recipients is an important opportunistic infection especially in areas of high disease prevalence like Pakistan. Isoniazid prophylaxis for 6 months is effective in preventing tuberculosis among this class of patients.

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Source
September 2005

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