Chronobiol Int 2005 ;22(2):267-78
Unit of Behavioural Biology, Human Chronobiology Research Group, University of Groningen, Haren, The Netherlands.
We report on results from an Internet survey of sleeping habits in a Dutch population using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), supplemented with the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). The MCTQ was completed by 5,055 responders, of which 2,481 also completed the MEQ. MEQ score correlated well with the MCTQ assessment of time of mid-sleep on free days (MSF; r = - 0.73) and on workdays (MSW; r = - 0.61). MEQ was more strongly correlated with MSF (50% of sleep time) than with sleep onset (0%), rise time (100%), or with any other percentile (10 to 40, 60% to 90%) of sleep on free days. The study shows that chronotype (based on MSF as measured by the MCTQ) strongly correlates with morningness-eveningness (as measured by the MEQ). However, the MCTQ collects additional detailed information on sleep-wake behavior under natural conditions.