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N-(1-piperidinepropionyl)amphotericin B methyl ester (PAME)--a new derivative of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B: searching for the mechanism of its reduced toxicity.
J Colloid Interface Sci 2005 Jul;287(2):476-84
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków, Poland.
N-(1-piperidinepropionyl)amphotericin B methyl ester (in short, PAME), a low-toxicity amphotericin B derivative, has been investigated in Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface alone and in mixtures with cellular membrane sterols (a mammalian sterol, cholesterol, and a fungal sterol, ergosterol) and a model phospholipid (DPPC). The analysis of the strength of interaction between PAME and both sterols as well as DPPC was based, on surface pressure measurements and analysis of the isothermal compressibility (C(s)(-1)), the mean area per molecule (A(12)), the excess free energy of mixing (DeltaG(Exc)) and the total free energy of mixing (DeltaG(M)). It has been found that the interactions between PAME and sterols are attractive; however, their strength is significantly weaker for mixtures of PAME with cholesterol than with ergosterol. This casts light on the improved selectivity of PAME toward fungal cells. The strongest interactions, found for PAME/DPPC mixtures, proved an important role of DPPC in the mechanism of reduced toxicity of PAME as compared to amphotericin B. Due to stable complex formation between PAME and DPPC the antibiotic is immobilized with DPPC molecules, which reduces the concentration of free antibiotic, which is capable of interacting with membrane sterols.
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