Gene 2005 May;351:83-95
Pulmonary-Critical Care Medicine Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1434, USA.
Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a reversible modification of proteins with NAD:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferases and ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolases (ADPRH) catalyzing the opposing arms of an ADP-ribosylation cycle. The ADPRH cDNA had been cloned from human, rat, and mouse tissues and high levels of mRNA were found in brain, spleen, and testis. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate ADPRH gene expression, we cloned the full-length cDNA, determined the genomic structure of mouse ADPRH, and investigated promoter function. Northern analysis using different regions of the ADPRH cDNA as probes identified two mRNAs of 1.7 and 3.0 kb, which resulted from the use of alternative polyadenylation signals, CATAAC and ATTAAA, beginning at positions 1501 and 2885, respectively, of the nucleotide sequence (A of ATG = 1). The ADPRH gene, represented in two overlapping genomic clones, spans approximately 9 kilobases with four exons and three introns. The 5'-flanking region contains the features of a housekeeping gene; it has neither a TATA nor a CAAT box, but is, instead, highly GC-rich with multiple transcription initiation sites. Promoter analysis, assessed using transient transfection of PC12, NB41A3, NIH/3T3, and Hepa 1-6 cells with truncated constructs, revealed potent stimulatory (-119 to -89) and inhibitory (-161 to -119) elements, which were utilized similarly in the different cell lines. Further mutational analysis of the promoter and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays identified a positive GC-box element (-107 to -95); Sp1 and Sp3, which bound to this motif, were also detected by supershift assays. In co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells that lack endogenous Sp1, Sp1 trans-activated the ADPRH promoter in a manner dependent on the presence of an Sp1-binding motif. The promoter activity pattern and involvement of Sp transcription factors are consistent with prior observations of widespread hydrolase expression in mammalian tissues.