J Chem Ecol 2004 Aug;30(8):1647-62
Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University Locked Bag 588 Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia 2678.
An investigation of the chemical basis for rice allelopathy to the rice weed arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) was undertaken using GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques. Twenty-five compounds were isolated and identified from the root exudates of both allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice varieties. Phenolics, phenylalkanoic acids, and indoles were among the chemical classes identified. Two indoles previously unreported in rice were detected in the exudates, 5-hydroxy-2-indolecarboxylic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Several other compounds identified in this study have not previously been reported in rice root exudates, namely mercaptoacetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 4-vinylphenol. The levels of 15 compounds present in the exudates were quantified using GC/MS/MS. Six of the seven most abundant compounds were phenolic acids. Significant differences exist between the allelopathic and non-allelopathic cultivars in their production of three of these six compounds. Greater amounts of trans-ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid were detected in the exudates of allelopathic cultivars. The seventh compound, abietic acid, was significantly higher in the non-allelopathic cultivars.