Am J Med Genet A 2004 Dec;131(3):301-6
Medical Genetics Center, United Laboratories, Tartu University Clinics, Tartu 51005 , Estonia.
Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a well recognizable syndrome, but the etiology of SRS seems to be heterogeneous. SRS is listed in Mendelian Inheritance in Man as an autosomal dominant disorder because most described cases have been of sporadic occurrence, and most likely were caused by de novo autosomal dominant mutation, and because families with apparent dominant transmission of a SRS phenotype have been described. Still, in a few families, autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. We describe two sisters who meet the criteria for SRS proposed by Price et al. . The parents had normal facial features, normal height, and normal post-natal growth. This is the second well-documented case of familial recurrence of SRS that resembles an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Since sib recurrence is so rare in SRS, other modes of inheritance should be considered. The finding of maternal uniparental disomy 7 (mUPD7) in 10% of SRS cases suggests that lack of paternally expressed imprinted gene(s) or overexpression of maternal imprinted gene(s) on chromosome 7 cause SRS. The recurrence in sibs could be caused by a mutation in the imprinted gene or imprinting center carried by one parent. Alternatively, recurrence in sibs could represent germ line mosaicism for a dominant mutation in one of the parents.