Germline mutations of human short tandem repeat (STR) loci are expansions or contractions of repeat arrays which are not well understood in terms of the mechanism(s) underlying such mutations. Although polymerase slippage is generally accepted as a mechanism capable to explain most features of such mutations, it is still possible that unequal crossing over plays some role in those events, as most studies in humans could not exclude unequal crossing over (UCO). Crossing over can be studied by analyzing haplotypes using flanking markers. To check for UCO in mutations, we have analyzed 150 paternity cases for which more than the usual trio (mother, child, and father) were available for testing by analyzing 16 STR loci. In a total of 4900 parent-child allele transfers four mutations were observed at different loci (D8S1179, D18S51, D21S11, and SE33/ACTBP2). To identify the mutated allele and to check for UCO, we typed at least four informative loci flanking the mutated locus and used the pedigree data to establish haplotypes. By doing so we were able to exclude UCO in each case. Moreover, we were able to identify the mutations as one-repeat contractions/expansions. Our data thus support slippage as the mechanism of germline mutations in STRs.