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    Superficial fungal infections.
    Lancet 2004 Sep 25-Oct 1;364(9440):1173-82
    Dermatology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103-2714, USA.
    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

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    Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.
    Clin Dermatol 2010 Mar;28(2):140-5
    Dermatology Service and Mycology Department, General Hospital of Mexico DO, Dr. Balmis 148, Colonia Doctores México DF, 06720, Mexico.
    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. Read More
    Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea nigra, and piedra.
    Dermatol Clin 2003 Jul;21(3):395-400, v
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Science Center (Sunnybrook Site), University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada.
    Tinea infections are among the most common dermatologic conditions throughout the world. To avoid a misdiagnosis, identification of dermatophyte infections requires both a fungal culture on Sabouraud's agar media, and a light microscopic mycologic examination from skin scrapings. Topical antifungals may be sufficient for treatment of tinea corporis and cruris and tinea nigra, and the shaving of hair infected by piedra may also be beneficial. Read More
    Tinea versicolor in dark-skinned individuals.
    Int J Dermatol 2014 Feb 10;53(2):137-41. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
    Eisenhower Medical Center, Rancho Mirage, CA and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    In this article, we review the salient features of tinea versicolor and describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathology of this mycosis in dark-skinned individuals. Tinea versicolor is caused by an overgrowth of the Malassezia genus. It manifests clinically as asymptomatic hypopigmented macules, hyperpigmented macules, or a combination of the two. Read More