Physiology (Bethesda) 2004 Aug;19:198-206
Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.
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C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 1996 ;190(4):395-408
Institut d'Epidémiologie Neurologique et de Neurologie Tropicale, Faculté de Médecine, Limoges, France.
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by infestation with a flagellate protozoan, the trypanosome which is inoculated by the bite of the tsetse fly Glossina. The particular ecological conditions of parasites and vectors are such that the disease is only found in the intertropical regions of Africa. Although there are many species of trypanosomes, only two, belonging to the brucei group are likely to lead to HAT. Read More
Prog Neurobiol 2010 Jun 6;91(2):152-71. Epub 2009 Dec 6.
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius väg 8, Stockholm SE-171 77, Sweden.
The extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness. Trypanosomes are transmitted by tsetse flies and HAT occurs in foci in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease, which is invariably lethal if untreated, evolves in a first hemo-lymphatic stage, progressing to a second meningo-encephalitic stage when the parasites cross the blood-brain barrier. Read More
Brain Res Bull 1997 ;44(5):579-89
Department of Applied Biology and Biochemistry, National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
This review is aimed at emphasizing the need for basic neuroscience research on two tropical diseases, malaria and sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis), that still represent major health problems and in which severe involvement of the nervous system is frequently the direct cause of death. The life cycles of the two parasites, the protozoan Plasmodium and Trypanosoma brucei, which are the causative agents of malaria and sleeping sickness, respectively, are briefly reviewed. The historical contribution to the pathogenesis and therapy of malaria by a renowned pioneer in neuroscience, Camillo Golgi, is pointed out. Read More
Cell Mol Life Sci 2002 May;59(5):845-58
Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Division of Infection and Immunity, University of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.
Recent progress in understanding the neuropathological mechanisms of sleeping sickness reveals a complex relationship between the trypanosome parasite that causes this disease and the host nervous system. The pathology of late-stage sleeping sickness, in which the central nervous system is involved, is complicated and is associated with disturbances in the circadian rhythm of sleep. The blood-brain barrier, which separates circulating blood from the central nervous system, regulates the flow of materials to and from the brain. Read More