Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2004 ;109(1-2):19-24
IES/REM, Joint Research Center, TP 321 21020 Ispra, Italy.
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Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2004 ;109(1-2):133-6
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, L-103, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808, USA.
This paper discusses a collaborative project (1) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of a system seeking early review, in a 'quasi peer review' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of calculations to respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible national/international authorities, (3) development of an affordable/accessible system to distribute results to countries without prediction capabilities and (4) utilisation for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits Internet browser technology and low-cost PC hardware, incorporates an Internet node, with access control, for depositing a minimal set of XML-based graphics files for presentation in an identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, data elaboration and recalculation (if necessary) and should produce strong consensus among decision makers. Read More
Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2004 ;109(1-2):79-82
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland.
In a nuclear or radiological emergency radiation measurements provide indispensable data needed in the management of the situation at hand. In order to assess the possible consequences correctly and to carry out proper countermeasures on time, the authorities must have a pre-prepared monitoring strategy at their disposal. There are, however, many different factors that affect a strategy. Read More
Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2004 ;109(1-2):111-4
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
This paper discusses the role of hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. In particular, most recent developments such as, the radionuclide transport models integrated in to the decision support system RODOS will be explored. Recent progress in the implementation of physically-based distributed hydrological models for operational forecasting in national and supranational centres, may support a closer cooperation between national hydrological services and therefore, strengthen the use of hydrological and radiological models implemented in decision support systems. Read More
Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2004 ;109(1-2):89-96
National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ, UK.
This paper looks at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the late phase of a radioactive release, and the development of the initial late phase strategy. It discusses the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Based on this the following recommendations are made: (1) the issues that will arise at the start of the late phase response to a radioactive release require preparation work in advance of any release; (2) this preparation should consider the adequacy of legislation, technical data and modelling, options for waste storage and disposal, resources for monitoring and implementing clean up; (3) late phase preparedness requires regular exercising and (4) the possibility of terrorist releases adds further emphasis to the need for preparedness for the late phase. Read More