Neurochem Res 2004 Mar;29(3):579-87
Centre for Research in Biomedicine, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom BS16 1QY.
Using the in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model ECV304/C6, which consists of cocultures of human umbilical vein endothelial-like cells (ECV304) and rat glioma cells (C6), the role of peroxynitrite (OONO-) in nitric oxide (NO*)-mediated BBB disruption was evaluated. Endothelial cell cultures were exposed to NO* gas, in the presence or absence of the OONO- blocker FeTPPS. Separate exposure to NO* and OONO- resulted in endothelial cell cytotoxicity and a decline in barrier integrity. Unfortunately, FeTPPS induced significant detrimental effects on model BBB integrity at a concentration of 300 microM and above. At 250 microM (the highest concentration usable), FeTPPS displayed a trend toward prevention of NO* elicited perturbation of barrier integrity. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate is oxidized to fluorescent dichlorofluorescein by OONO- but only marginally by NO* or O2*-. We observed large and rapid increases in fluorescence in ECV304 preloaded cells following NO* exposure, which were blocked by FeTPPS. Furthermore, using an antinitrotyrosine antibody we detected the nitration of endothelial cell proteins following NO* exposure and conclude that NO*-mediated BBB dysfunction is predominantly elicited by OONO- and not NO*. Proposed mechanisms of NO*-mediated OONO- elicited barrier dysfunction and damage are discussed.