Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2004 Mar;10(3):178-85
Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4095, USA.
In this study, we evaluated the influence of nonmyeloablative and ablative conditioning regimens on the occurrence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). One hundred thirty-seven patients undergoing matched-related sibling transplantations received the same GVHD prophylaxis. Myeloablative regimens included intravenous busulfan/cyclophosphamide (n=45) and fludarabine/melphalan (n=29). Patients in the nonmyeloablative group (n=63) received fludarabine/idarubicin/cytarabine, cisplatin/fludarabine/idarubicin, and fludarabine/cyclophosphamide. The actuarial rate of grade II to IV acute GVHD was significantly higher (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-8.8) in patients receiving ablative regimens (36%) compared with the nonmyeloablative group (12%). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was higher in the ablative group (40%) compared with the nonmyeloablative group (14%). The rates were comparable within the first 200 days and were significantly higher in the ablative group beyond day 200 (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-23.2). Nonrelapse and GVHD-related mortality were relatively low in both groups. The use of the described nonmyeloablative preparative regimens was associated with a reduced incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD compared with the busulfan/cyclophosphamide and fludarabine/melphalan transplant regimens. It is interesting to note that nonrelapse mortality with nonmyeloablative regimens in older and more debilitated patients was low (14%) and comparable to that achieved with standard high-dose regimens in younger patients.