Pharmacogenomics and breast cancer.

Pharmacogenomics 2004 Jan;5(1):31-55

Department of Radiation Oncology and NYU Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Germline variants can be used to study breast cancer susceptibility as well as the variable response to both drug and radiation therapy used in the treatment of breast cancer. In addition to germline high-penetrance mutations important in familial and hereditary breast cancer, a substantial component of breast cancer risk can be attributed to the combined effect of many low-risk germline polymorphisms involved in relevant pathways like those of DNA repair, adhesion, carcinogen and estrogen metabolism. Additionally, the identification of sequence variants in genes involved in response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment, has created the opportunity to apply genomics to individualized treatment. The continued insight into the molecular pathways involved in drug and radiation response has enabled progress in tailoring therapies in such a way as to both maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug targets can be used to predict toxicity and response to pharmacologic agents used in breast cancer treatment. Similarly, germline variants in genes involved in DNA repair, radiation-induced fibrosis and reactive oxygen species may be used to predict response to radiation therapy. As a result, pharmacogenomics is rapidly evolving to affect the entire spectrum of breast cancer management, influencing both prevention and treatment choices.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/phgs.5.1.31.25686DOI Listing
January 2004
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References

(Supplied by CrossRef)

Dunning AM et al.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1999

Spurdle AB et al.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 2002

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