J Am Diet Assoc 2003 Sep;103(9):1167-73
Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH 43219, USA.
Objective: To evaluate nutrient intakes, plasma phenylalanine (PHE) and tyrosine (TYR) concentrations, and physical growth of children with phenylketonuria undergoing nutrition management.
Design: Children were fed three different medical foods during a one-year study. Subjects/setting Children were evaluated at baseline and every three months in metabolic clinics. Children's diets were managed at home. Statistical analyses Intakes of medical foods and nutrients, number of diaries with nutrients <67% and <100% of Recommended Dietary Intakes (RDI), and mean plasma PHE and TYR concentrations were compared among groups using two-way ANOVA. chi-squared test compared the percentage of plasma PHE and TYR concentrations in each group in specific categories. Height and body mass index were plotted against National Center for Health Statistics reference data; means were compared among groups. Tukey's test compared groups with significant treatment effects.
Results: Mean intakes of nutrients, except energy by all groups and vitamin B-12 by the Periflex-fed group, met or exceeded RDIs. The oldest children tended to have the highest PHE intakes and plasma PHE concentrations. Mean length or height z score indicated normal linear growth. Mean body mass index z scores at study end suggested many children were overweight.
Applications: Dietitians should prescribe adequate medical food and encourage children with phenylketonuria to ingest all prescribed daily. Linear growth of children, where mean protein equivalent intakes ranged from 113% to 129% of RDI, was normal, demonstrating the need for a protein intake greater than RDIs when an elemental diet is the primary protein source. Dietitians should prescribe and carefully monitor energy intake, physical activity, and weight.