Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a
    Comparison of straining during defecation in three positions: results and implications for human health.
    Dig Dis Sci 2003 Jul;48(7):1201-5
    The aim of the study was to compare the straining forces applied when sitting or squatting during defecation. Twenty-eight apparently healthy volunteers (ages 17-66 years) with normal bowel function were asked to use a digital timer to record the net time needed for sensation of satisfactory emptying while defecating in three alternative positions: sitting on a standard-sized toilet seat (41-42 cm high), sitting on a lower toilet seat (31-32 cm high), and squatting. They were also asked to note their subjective impression of the intensity of the defecation effort. Six consecutive bowel movements were recorded in each position. Both the time needed for sensation of satisfactory bowel emptying and the degree of subjectively assessed straining in the squatting position were reduced sharply in all volunteers compared with both sitting positions (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the present study confirmed that sensation of satisfactory bowel emptying in sitting defecation posture necessitates excessive expulsive effort compared to the squatting posture.

    Similar Publications

    Cardio-vascular events at defecation: are they unavoidable?
    Med Hypotheses 1990 Jul;32(3):231-3
    Cardio-vascular events at defecation are to a considerable degree the consequence of an unnatural (for a human being) seating defecation posture on a common toilet bowl or bed pan. The excessive straining expressed in intensively repeated Valsalva Maneuvers is needed for emptying the bowels in sitting position. The Valsalva Maneuver adversely affecting the cardio-vascular system is the causative factor of defecation syncope and death. Read More
    Etiology and pathogenesis of diverticulosis coli: a new approach.
    Med Hypotheses 1988 May;26(1):17-20
    The paper describes a hypothesis as to the etiology and pathogenesis of diverticulosis coli. Colonic diverticulosis develops as a result of excessive straining at defecation due to habitual bowel emptying in a sitting posture, which is typical of Western man. The magnitude of straining during habitual bowel emptying in a sitting posture is at least three-fold more than in a squatting posture and upon urge. Read More
    Primary constipation: an underlying mechanism.
    Med Hypotheses 1989 Feb;28(2):71-3
    Primary (simple) constipation is a consequence of habitual bowel elimination on common toilet seats. A considerable proportion of the population with normal bowel movement frequency has difficulty emptying their bowels, the principal cause of which is the obstructive nature of the recto-anal angle and its association with the sitting posture normally used in defecation. The only natural defecation posture for a human being is squatting. Read More
    Influence of body position and stool characteristics on defecation in humans.
    Am J Gastroenterol 2006 Dec 6;101(12):2790-6. Epub 2006 Oct 6.
    Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1009, USA.
    Background: Whether defecation is influenced by body position or stool characteristics is unclear.

    Aim: We investigated effects of body position, presence of stool-like sensation, and stool form on defecation patterns and manometric profiles.

    Methods: Rectal and anal pressures were assessed in 25 healthy volunteers during attempted defecation either in the lying or sitting positions and with balloon-filled or empty rectum. Read More