J Neuroendocrinol 2003 Apr;15(4):432-7
Center for Chronobiology, Psychiatric University Clinic, Wilhelm Kleinstrasse 27, CH-4025 Basel, Switzerland.
Nihon Rinsho 2012 Jul;70(7):1139-44
Department of Psychophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center for Neurology and Psychiatry.
Melatonin(N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is synthesized from tryptophan and is intensively secreted into the blood only in darkness (nighttime) by the pineal gland. Melatonin is not only the most reliable marker of internal circadian phase but also a potent sleep-promoting and circadian phase regulatory agent in humans. There is evidence that daytime administered melatonin is able to exhibit short-acting hypnagogic effect and phase-shifting of the circadian rhythms such that sleep timing and associated various physiological functions realign at a new desired phase. Read More
Chronobiol Int 2006 ;23(1-2):21-37
Centre for Chronobiology, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, England.
Melatonin signals time of day and time of year in mammals by virtue of its pattern of secretion, which defines 'biological night.' It is supremely important for research on the physiology and pathology of the human biological clock. Light suppresses melatonin secretion at night using pathways involved in circadian photoreception. Read More
Pharmacopsychiatry 2004 Jul;37(4):139-46
Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Campus Mitte - Universitätsmedizin.
Twenty years ago, chronobiology was a major topic in medical research, especially in psychiatry. Over time, however, clinicians lost interest in the subject because studies had failed to lead to any practical benefits for patient diagnosis or therapy. Today, the field of chronobiology appears to be on the verge of a renaissance. Read More
Physiol Behav 2007 Feb 20;90(2-3):294-300. Epub 2006 Oct 20.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine Pierre and Marie Curie-Pitie Salpetriere, and INSERM U 713 Douleurs et stress, 91 Boulevard de l'Hopital, 75013, Paris, France.
Chronobiotics are substances that adjust the timing of internal biological rhythms. Many classes of drugs have been claimed to possess such properties and arouse growing interest as the circumstances for their use in sleep disturbances caused by circadian rhythms alterations (delayed or advanced sleep-phase syndromes, non-24-h sleep-wake disorders, jet lag, shift work sleep disorders and so on) have become progressively more frequent. Amongst the substances potentially presenting chronobiotic properties, a consensus seems to be reached on the possible use of melatonin or its agonists to shift the phase of the human circadian clock, but optimizing the dose, formulation and especially the time of administration require further studies. Read More