Mycoses 2002 Dec;45(11-12):504-11
Cerebral aspergillosis usually occurs in severely immunocompromized hosts, is difficult to diagnose, and has a poor prognosis. After 14 months of chronic meningitis, ventriculitis, choroid plexitis, and lumbar arachnoiditis, which was complicated by acute hydrocephalus, Aspergillus, suspected to be from the candidus group, was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a previously healthy man. Thereafter Aspergillus antigen was found in stored plasma and CSF samples. He was treated with voriconazole and itraconazole. In a haemodialysis patient affected by an acute meningococcal meningitis, following a 3-day symptom-free interval, symptoms and signs of acute meningitis had reappeared and were unresponsive to a broad antimicrobial coverage. However, they resolved within 5 days after liposomal amphotericin B treatment had been started. From his CSF Aspergillus-DNA was identified and Aspergillus fumigatus isolated by culture. These two different clinical cases show that Aspergillus-DNA and antigen detection tests represent an advance in the diagnosis and liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole, and itraconazole are an advance in the treatment of Aspergillus meningitis.