Biochim Biophys Acta 2002 Sep;1572(2-3):317-40
Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
The two members of the P-type lectin family, the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) and the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF-II/MPR), are distinguished from all other lectins by their ability to recognize phosphorylated mannose residues. The P-type lectins play an essential role in the generation of functional lysosomes within the cells of higher eukaryotes by directing newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes bearing the mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) signal to lysosomes. At the cell surface, the IGF-II/MPR also binds to the nonglycosylated polypeptide hormone, IGF-II, targeting this potent mitogenic factor for degradation in lysosomes. Moreover, in recent years, the multifunctional nature of the IGF-II/MPR has become increasingly apparent, as the list of extracellular ligands recognized by this receptor has grown to include a diverse spectrum of M6P-containing proteins as well as nonglycosylated ligands, implicating a role for the IGF-II/MPR in a number of important physiological pathways. Recent investigations have provided valuable insights into the molecular basis of ligand recognition by the MPRs as well as the complex intracellular trafficking pathways traversed by these receptors. This review provides a current view on the structures, functions, and medical relevance of the P-type lectins.