Environ Med 1993 ;37(2):107-16
Space Medicine Research Center, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
Vaccine 1993 ;11(5):496-503
Space Biology Group Institute of Biotechnology, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Switzerland.
Depression of lymphocyte response to mitogens in cosmonauts after space flight was reported for the first time in the early 1970s by Soviet immunologists. Today we know that depression of lymphocyte function affects at least 50% of space crew members. Investigations on the ground on subjects undergoing physical and psychological stress indicate that stress is a major factor in immune depression of astronauts. Read More
J Gravit Physiol 1996 Apr;3(1):1-9
Space Biology, ETH Technopark, Zurich, Switzerland.
The study of the function of immune cells in microgravity has been studied for more than 20 years in several laboratories. It is clear today that the immune system is depressed in more than 50% of the astronauts during and after space flight and that the activation of T lymphocytes by mitogens in vitro changes dramatically. This article gives an overview of the gravitational studies conducted by our laboratory in Spacelab, in MIR station, in sounding rockets and on the ground in the clinostat and the centrifuge. Read More
ASGSB Bull 1991 Jul;4(2):107-15
Institut für Biotechnologie, Gruppe Weltraumbiologie, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland.
The effect of microgravity has been extensively studied on human lymphocytes in several space missions. A clear distinction must be made between two kinds of experiments: (i) with cells purified from the peripheral blood of test subjects before flight and then exposed inflight to mitogens and other activators (these are called in vitro experiments), and (ii) with lymphocytes from crewmembers of space missions exposed to mitogens prior to and after flight (ex vivo experiments). The first approach can be considered as basic research in cell biology in space; the second contributes to identifying the effects of the stress of spaceflight on the immune response of astronauts. Read More
Adv Space Res 1999 ;23(12):1945-53
Department of General Surgery Research, Carolinas Medical Center, P.O. Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232-2861, USA.
Exposure of animals and humans to space flight conditions has resulted in numerous alterations in immunological parameters. Decreases in lymphocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production, and natural killer cell activity have all been reported after space flight. Alterations in leukocyte subset distribution have also been reported after flight of humans and animals in space. Read More