J Agric Food Chem 2002 Sep;50(19):5406-11
Division of Food Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK.
On-line techniques were developed to monitor chemical and physical changes occurring during the heating of skim milk powder (SMP). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCIMS) followed the generation and release of volatile compounds from SMP in a packed-bed reactor. Operating conditions were optimized to avoid condensation of high boiling compounds such as maltol, and the system was highly reproducible (CV < 7%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of SMP identified a potential glass transition at an onset temperature of 67.9 degrees C and a series of exothermic events that were related to different stages of the Maillard reaction. No lactose crystallization was found after heating. Using a heated stage reflectance FTIR device, spectra were obtained at different temperatures. Analysis of the data showed a correlation between the intensity ratio at wavenumbers 1017 and 1064 cm(-1) and the glass transition measured by DSC. This FTIR system was not sensitive enough to detect Maillard intermediates. Combining data from the three techniques provides a fuller picture of the physical changes during the Maillard reaction and their effects on the chemical reactions.