Radiat Res 2002 May;157(5):506-15
Division of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.
To determine if radiofrequency (RF) radiation induces the formation of micronuclei, C3H 10T(1/2) cells were exposed to 835.62 MHz frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or 847.74 MHz code division multiple access (CDMA) modulated RF radiation. After the exposure to RF radiation, the micronucleus assay was performed by the cytokinesis block method using cytochalasin B treatment. The micronuclei appearing after mitosis were scored in binucleated cells using acridine orange staining. The frequency of micronuclei was scored both as the percentage of binucleated cells with micronuclei and as the number of micronuclei per 100 binucleated cells. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin B at a concentration of 2 microg/ml for 22 h was found to yield the maximum number of binucleated cells in C3H 10T(1/2) cells. The method used for the micronucleus assay in the present study detected a highly significant dose response for both indices of micronucleus production in the dose range of 0.1-1.2 Gy and it was sensitive enough to detect a significant (P > 0.05) increase in micronuclei after doses of 0.3 Gy in exponentially growing cells and after 0.9 Gy in plateau-phase cells. Exponentially growing cells or plateau-phase cells were exposed to CDMA (3.2 or 4.8 W/kg) or FDMA (3.2 or 5.1 W/kg) RF radiation for 3, 8, 16 or 24 h. In three repeat experiments, no exposure condition was found by analysis of variance to result in a significant increase relative to sham-exposed cells either in the percentage of binucleated cells with micronuclei or in the number of micronuclei per 100 binucleated cells. In this study, data from cells exposed to different RF signals at two SARs were compared to a common sham-exposed sample. We used the Dunnett's test, which is specifically designed for this purpose, and found no significant exposure-related differences for either plateau-phase cells or exponentially growing cells. Thus the results of this study are not consistent with the possibility that these RF radiations induce micronuclei.