J Biol Chem 2002 Jun 10;277(25):23028-36. Epub 2002 Apr 10.
UPR 9003 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire conventionné avec le Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Université Louis Pasteur, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.
The DNA damage dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) activity is suggestive of its implication in genome surveillance and protection. Here we show that the PARP-2 gene, mainly expressed in actively dividing tissues follows, but to a smaller extent, that of PARP-1 during mouse development. We found that PARP-2 and PARP-1 homo- and heterodimerize; the interacting interfaces, sites of reciprocal modification, have been mapped. PARP-2 was also found to interact with three other proteins involved in the base excision repair pathway: x-ray cross complementing factor 1 (XRCC1), DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase III, already known as partners of PARP-1. XRCC1 negatively regulates PARP-2 activity, as it does for PARP-1, while being a polymer acceptor for both PARP-1 and PARP-2. To gain insight into the physiological role of PARP-2 in response to genotoxic stress, we developed by gene disruption mice deficient in PARP-2. Following treatment by the alkylating agent N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU), PARP-2-deficient cells displayed an important delay in DNA strand breaks resealing, similar to that observed in PARP-1 deficient cells, thus confirming that PARP-2 is also an active player in base excision repair despite its low capacity to synthesize ADP-ribose polymers.