J Biol Chem 2002 May 11;277(18):16189-201. Epub 2002 Feb 11.
Department of Carcinogenesis, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA.
15-Lipoxygenase 2 (15-LOX2) is a recently cloned human lipoxygenase that shows tissue-restricted expression in prostate, lung, skin, and cornea. The protein level and enzymatic activity of 15-LOX2 have been shown to be down-regulated in prostate cancers compared with normal and benign prostate tissues. The biological function of 15-LOX2 and the role of loss of 15-LOX2 expression in prostate tumorigenesis, however, remain unknown. We report the cloning and functional characterization of 15-LOX2 and its three splice variants (termed 15-LOX2sv-a, 15-LOX2sv-b, and 15-LOX2sv-c) from primary prostate epithelial cells. Western blotting with multiple primary prostate cell strains and prostate cancer cell lines reveals that the expression of 15-LOX2 is lost in all prostate cancer cell lines, accompanied by decreased enzymatic activity revealed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Further experiments show that the loss of 15-LOX2 expression results from transcriptional repression caused by mechanism(s) other than promoter hypermethylation or histone deacetylation. Subsequent functional studies indicate the following: 1) the 15-LOX2 product, 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, inhibits prostate cancer cell cycle progression; 2) 15-LOX2 expression in primary prostate epithelial cells is inversely correlated with cell cycle; and 3) restoration of 15-LOX2 expression in prostate cancer cells partially inhibits cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results suggest that 15-LOX2 could be a suppressor of prostate cancer development, which functions by restricting cell cycle progression.