J Biol Chem 2002 Mar 14;277(13):11473-80. Epub 2002 Jan 14.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
Carnitine octanoyltransferase (COT) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, which facilitate the transport of medium- and long-chain fatty acids through the peroxisomal and mitochondrial membranes, are physiologically inhibited by malonyl-CoA. Using an "in silico" macromolecular docking approach, we built a model in which malonyl-CoA could be attached near the catalytic core. This disrupts the positioning of the acyl-CoA substrate in the channel in the model reported for both proteins (Morillas, M., Gómez-Puertas, P., Roca, R., Serra, D., Asins, G., Valencia, A., and Hegardt, F. G. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 45001-45008). The putative malonyl-CoA domain contained His(340), implicated together with His(131) in COT malonyl-CoA sensitivity (Morillas, M., Clotet, J., Rubi, B., Serra, D., Asins, G., Ariño, J., and Hegardt F. G. (2000) FEBS Lett. 466, 183-186). When we mutated COT His(131) the IC(50) increased, and malonyl-CoA competed with the substrate decanoyl-CoA. Mutation of COT Ala(332), present in the domain 8 amino acids away from His(340), decreased the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of COT. The homologous histidine and alanine residues of L-CPT I, His(277), His(483), and Ala(478) were also mutated, which decreased malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Natural mutation of Pro(479), which is also located in the malonyl-CoA predicted site, to Leu in a patient with human L-CPT I hereditary deficiency, modified malonyl-CoA sensitivity. We conclude that this malonyl-CoA domain is present in both COT and L-CPT I proteins and might be the site at which malonyl-CoA interacts with the substrate acyl-CoA. Other malonyl-CoA non-inhibitable members of the family, CPT II and carnitine acetyltransferase, do not contain this domain.