The adenovirus early proteins E1A and E1B-55kDa are key regulators of viral DNA replication, and it was thought that targeting of p53 by E1B-55kDa is essential for this process. Here we have identified a previously unrecognized function of E1B for adenovirus replication. We found that E1B-55kDa is involved in targeting the transcription factor YB-1 to the nuclei of adenovirus type 5-infected cells where it is associated with viral inclusion bodies believed to be sites of viral transcription and replication. We show that YB-1 facilitates E2 gene expression through the E2 late promoter thus controlling E2 gene activity at later stages of infection. The role of YB-1 for adenovirus replication was demonstrated with an E1-minus adenovirus vector containing a YB-1 transgene. In infected cells, AdYB-1 efficiently replicated and produced infectious progeny particles. Thus, adenovirus E1B-55kDa protein and the host cell factor YB-1 act jointly to facilitate adenovirus replication in the late phase of infection.