J Med Chem 2002 Jan;45(2):344-59
Dipartimento Farmaco Chimico Tecnologico, Universitá degli Studi di Siena, Via Aldo Moro, 53100 Siena, Italy.
The prototypical dopamine and serotonin antagonist (+/-)-7-chloro-9-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-9,10-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazepine (5) was resolved into its R and S enantiomers via crystallization of the diastereomeric tartaric acid salts. Binding studies confirmed that the (R)-(-)-enantiomer is a more potent D(2) receptor antagonist than the (S)-(+)-enantiomer, with almost identical affinity at the 5-HT(2) receptor ((S)-(+)-5, log Y = 4.7; (R)-(-)-5, log Y = 7.4). These data demonstrated a significant stereoselective interaction of 5 at D(2) receptors. Furthermore, enantiomer (S)-(+)-5 (ST1460) was tested on a panel of receptors; this compound showed an intriguing binding profile characterized by high affinity for H(1) and the alpha(1) receptor, a moderate affinity for alpha(2) and D(3) receptors, and low affinity for muscarinic receptors. Pharmacological and biochemical investigation confirmed an atypical pharmacological profile for (S)-(+)-5. This atypical antipsychotic lead has low propensity to induce catalepsy in rat. It has minimal effect on serum prolactin levels, and it has been selected for further pharmacological studies. (S)-(+)-5 increases the extracellular levels of dopamine in the rat striatum after subcutaneous administration. By use of 5 as the lead compound, a novel series of potential atypical antipsychotics has been developed, some of them being characterized by a stereoselective interaction at D(2) receptors. A number of structure-activity relationships trends have been identified, and a possible explanation is advanced in order to account for the observed stereoselectivity of the enantiomer of (+/-)-5 for D(2) receptors. The molecular structure determination of the enantiomers of 5 by X-ray diffraction and molecular modeling is reported.