Dr Ajay Prakash, MDS - Dr MGR Medical University - Professor

Dr Ajay Prakash


Dr MGR Medical University


Chennai, Tamilnadu | India

Main Specialties: Biology, Clinical & Laboratory Immunology, Craniofacial Surgery, Cytopathology, Dentistry, Forensic Pathology, Oncology, Oral Medicine, Pathology-Anatomic & Clinical

Additional Specialties: Oral and Maxillo Facial Pathology

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7100-2420

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Dr Ajay Prakash, MDS - Dr MGR Medical University - Professor

Dr Ajay Prakash



My main focus will be to impart Oral Biology and Oral Health Science Care to all Educators, Researchers, Staff of Dental& Medical schools, Dental research institutes, Industrial laboratories, and to provide relevant basic science training to Dentists and Physicians perusing postdoctoral specialty training. In addition, I want to conduct programs in areasof particular interest to industrial based scientists seeking additional training and advanced diplomas.
The Graduate and Postgraduate dental students need to be trained to attain competence in dealing with the nature of oral diseases, their causes and effects. I being specialist in Oral Dentistry can guide Graduate & Post graduate dental students in dealing with the nature, characteristics, cause, effects and diagnosis of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions and study of the immune system, which facilitates early detection underlying ailments like AIDS and recommend appropriate treatment.
I perform routine histo-pathological evaluations of specimens and also carry out routine diagnostic procedures including cytological, microbiological, other investigations and research projects.  I can impart diagnostic knowledge to students & practitioners to enhance their academic and clinical proficiency, but also potentiate the intellectual, rational and social ability of the student, resulting in Oral Science and Oral Biology for improved patient care.
Seeking a challenging position in a competitive, credential Universities with a post graduate in dental surgery with good academic and Research back ground, and good communication skills, where I can improve my technical and professional skills in contributing effectively to the success of Organizations with confident communicator who can relate well to the dental patients and medical professionals.
I am able to hard work as part of dental team has flexible and friendly with professional and ethical approach to challenging modalities.
Looking for an Excellent Research academician and administrative with the support of modern advanced dental science opportunities, with an optimistic future thinking and Highly excellence prestigious, Renowned Universities.


Dr Ajay Prakash obtained his BDS in KGF Dental College,KGF,Karnataka,India, in 1997 Under Bangalore University and MDS from Tamilnadu Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai in 2001 Under Dr MGR Medical University respectively.

I was awarded the “Best scientific Paper Presentation Award” in 2000, for Amelogenin Gene Marker for sex Determination, and Lip Prints as a Best Scientific Paper presentation in 2000, for perpetuating academic excellence.

Best Scientific Poster Presentation in Hybrid DesmoplasticAmeloblastoma, in 2006.

In 2001 he enrolled as a Life Member of in the Indian Academy of Oral Pathology and Microbiology Association at the National Level,

I was awarded the Best Publication Award in Journal of Oral andMaxillo Facial Pathology, in2004, Vol III, Issue 1, Article Title in HLA DQ – Gene for Human Identification.

I joined KGF Dental College and Hospital in 2001 after his Masters as a Senior Lecturer and Administrator, and successfully completed his promotion to Assist Professor.

Then later Migrated to Hyderabad and joined as a Reader in Department of Oral Pathology inKamineni Institute Dental Sciences, Narketpally, and promoted as Professor and Started a Post Graduate course in Oral Pathologyand Microbiology Holdedthe post of Professor and Head Department of Oral Pathology.

I had visited as a Dental Council of India Inspector to various Dental Institutions from the
Govt. of India, and actively participated in many Scientific Conferences.

I was an Executive Committee member for Indian Academy of Oral Pathology Association in India for a Period of One Year.

Ihad publications as author/coauthor, including contribution to six text book clinical data with Images. He has been the guide to dissertations submitted for the conferral of Master’s degree by the University

I started and registered a Scientific National Journal and served as Editor in Chief for the Indian Journal of Dental Advancements, and served as a peer reviewer for many Scientific Journals,

I was a Panel of Examiners in Rajeev Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Mani pal University of Health Sciences, DR MGR Medical University of Health Sciences for Under Graduates and Post Graduates.

Primary Affiliation: Dr MGR Medical University - Chennai, Tamilnadu , India


Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:

View Dr Ajay Prakash’s Resume / CV


Mar 2001
Mar 1997




34Profile Views

Lip outline: A new paradigm in forensic sciences.

Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences [01 Sep 2016, 8(3):178](PMID:28123282 PMCID:PMC5210115)

Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences

Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences [01 Sep 2016, 8(3):178]Type: research-article, Journal Article DOI: 10.4103/0975-1475.195109 AbstractPersonal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also in crime/criminal investigation and identification. Sometimes establishing a person's identity can be a very difficult process. Dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common technique used. However, there are many well-known implanted methods of human identification, one of the most interesting emerging methods of human identification which originates from the criminal and forensic practice, is human lips recognition. Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with the identification based on lip traces. The lip outline of every person is unique and can be used to fix the personal identity.The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of lip outline patterns among males and females, and to evaluate the uniqueness of lip outline pattern.The study group comprised of 200 individuals from Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences. Lip outline patterns were obtained and were transferred to the proforma sheet for analysis.The results of the study revealed that the lip outline patterns for each individual were unique.This study showed that lip outline patterns are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification.

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September 2016
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Effects of different concentration of fluoride in oral mucosal cells in albino rats

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic ResearchVolume 9, Issue 12, 1 December 2015, Pages ZF01-ZF04  doi:  [10.7860/JCDR/2015/15469.6861] PMCID: PMC4717761 PMID: 26817001

Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

AbstractIntroductionFluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary.ObjectivesTo evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days.Materials and MethodsCytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software.ResultsMean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls.ConclusionThe observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly eventuate into dysplastic alterations, which can progress to malignant changes.Keywords: Cytomorphometry, Exfoliative cytology, Fluorosis, Image analysis, Papanicolaou stain, Sodium fluorideJ Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Dec; 9(12): ZF01–ZF04. Published online 2015 Dec 1. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/15469.6861PMCID: PMC4717761PMID: 26817001

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December 2015
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A Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Langerhans Cells in Oral Mucosa, Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Jul;9(7):ZC76-9. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/14170.6235. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

J Clin Diagn Res.

AbstractBACKGROUND: Langerhans cells (LCs) are immunocompetent cells resident within oral mucosa which, together with intraepithelial lymphocytes, play a role in mucosal defence. LCs play a role in the pathogenesis of Oral lichen planus (OLP), a chronic mucocutaneous disorder thought to result from cell-mediated immune damage. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), LCs are thought to present tumour antigens to the lymphocytes.AIM: To assess and compare LCs immuno-histochemically in normal mucosa, oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma using anti S100 antibody and to know whether LCs play any role in local immune response to these diseases.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 65 cases (study group), 30 oral lichen planus and 35 oral squamous cell carcinoma (15 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated and 6 poorly differentiated), that were randomly selected from the archives of department of oral pathology and along with control group consisting of 30 normal healthy mucosa. The tissue sections were stained immunohisto-chemically by using anti S100 antibody in each group for detection of LCs.RESULTS: There was significant change in mean value of number of LCs in the study groups i.e. OLP and OSCC when compared to that of control group. The results of our study also revealed that there was decrease in the mean value of langerhans cells as the tumour progressed from well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma to poorly differentiated LCs carcinoma.CONCLUSION: A better understanding and clarity of LCs is pivotal for designing novel or improved therapeutic approaches that will allow proper functioning of LC's in patients with OLP and OSCC, thus significantly reducing the morbidity of OLP and OSCC patients.KEYWORDS: Antigen presenting cell; Cell mediated immunity; S100PMID: 26393210 PMCID: PMC4573043 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/14170.6235

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July 2015
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Is dentistry becoming a carnival of rust?

J Forensic Dent Sci. 2015 May-Aug; 7(2): 83. doi: 10.4103/0975-1475.155074

J Forensic Dent Sci.

Dentistry is a noble profession and everyone experiences the severity of dental pain at some point in their lives. At that particular time, they bless the dentists and consider them to be “god of the moment.”India is emerging as a new destination for dental health care. With the increasing awareness and importance of oral health, dental tourism is growing at a rapid pace. India is becoming adroit in dental health care. Also the cost of dental treatment in India is economical when compared to other countries, which attracts people from abroad.We are moving toward a perfect trend but there are several imperfections that need to be voiced out and addressed. The first one is mal-distribution of dental surgeons. Most of the dental surgeons with postgraduate degrees tend to setup their practices in metropolitan cities or district headquarters, based on the notion that the paying capacity is more in these places and may even attract patients from abroad here. As a result, there are more dental surgeons in the metropolitan cities or district headquarters and lack of adequate number of dental practitioners in the suburb and rural areas, creating an imbalance in spite of having enough dental institutions and registered dental practitioners. This mushrooming of dental practices in major cities also leads to intense marketing and unhealthy competition.Also, the fresh postgraduates try to get appointed as “senior lecturers” in teaching institutions. But the fact is that in most of the institutions this post is already saturated and they become jobless. Instead they can take up research as their career, since dental research in India is only at the postgraduate dissertation level and most of them never make an attempt to extend their research further, and are unaware of the funds and sponsorships available from governmental and private bodies.The policy makers should insist that dental institutions have a research and development department as it is a must for the growth of the dental-care system in general and for the nonclinical postgraduates in particular. It will also utilize the crop of fresh talent with sound knowledge and good skill, passing out from the dental institutions every year.At the same time, the union government or the state governments can encourage the dental surgeons to setup their practices in the rural areas by providing tax relief, loans with subsidies, etc., to cater the rural population, which will also ease the congestion and the unhealthy competition of dental practitioners in metropolitan cities.A forum should be created between dentists and the government directly so that transparency is maintained, and freedom of speech and anonymity is assured. So cheers to all the dentists for being who we are, and let us all strive to improve our profession and to remove the hurdles currently present.doi: 10.4103/0975-1475.155074PMCID: PMC4430579PMID: 26005293

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June 2015
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Cytomorpho metric analysis of oral mucosal cells in diabetic patients.

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements 2014; 6(4): 1659-1663. . doi: 10.5866/2014.641659 , http://nacd.in/Ijda/06/04

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements 2014; 6(4): 1659-1663. . doi: 10.5866/2014.641659 , http://nacd.in/Ijda/06/04

Quick Response CodeABSTRACT:Background: Diabetes is growing and massive silent epidemic that has potential to cripple health services affecting various tissues of the body including oral cavity. It has been shown that it may also cause various changes in the cells of oral mucosa such as increased nuclear diameter, increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, decreased cell size etc. The present study was planned for evaluation of cellular and nuclear changes seen in diabetic patients using cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosa.Objectives: To analyze oral mucosal smears in Type I and Type II diabetic patients cytomorphometrically and compare with the healthy normal controls.Materials and method: The study was carried out in 45 known Type I Diabetic patients, 45 known Type II Diabetic patients and 45 normal healthy individuals. Oral mucosal smears were prepared, subjected to papanicolaou stain and assessed for cytomorphometrical changes using image analysis software (image pro insight version 8.0) and the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software.Results: There was statistically significant increase in the mean value of maximum diameter of the nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of nucleus, area of the nucleus, mean value of maximum diameter of cell, minimum diameter of cell, perimeter of cell, area of cell in both the groups when compared healthy individuals.Conclusion: Exfoliative cytology can be used as an adjunctive tool to aid in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.Key words: Type I Diabetes, Type II Diabetes, Exfoliative Cytology, Cytomorphometry.doi: 10.5866/2014.641659Quick Response Code

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December 2014
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Scorching effects of heat on extracted teeth - A forensic view. .

J Forensic Dent Sci ,2014 Sep; 6(3):186-90. doi: 10.4103/0975-1475.137059. PMID: 25177142 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4142410

J Forensic Dent Sci



Fire investigation is the multidisciplinary basis of the exploration, which involves investigations concerning the origin of fire, its cause as well as the identification of victims. At times, victim identification in fire disasters becomes nearly impossible owing to complete destruction of soft tissues. In such circumstances, teeth may prove to be of value since they are extremely hard. A precise understanding of physical and histological changes in teeth subjected to high temperature can provide valuable clues in fire and crime investigations, when dental evidence remains.


The main aim and objective of the study was to investigate structural damage in freshly extracted teeth to heating, at different temperatures for a certain length of time in the laboratory.


Fifty-four freshly extracted teeth of different age groups had been subjected to different temperatures for a period of 15 minutes in the laboratory furnace. Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature.


Freshly extracted 54 permanent teeth of different age groups were collected and were subjected to temperatures of 100°C, 300°C, and 600°C. Teeth were then examined for any physical changes such as change in color, texture, or morphology that occurred. Then the teeth were subjected for decalcification following which the tissues were kept for routine processing and were embedded in paraffin wax. Sections of 4 μm thickness were made and stained in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) to correlate the microscopic findings to the temperature.


Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature.


Microscopic examination revealed definite histological patterns, which were explicitly seen at a particular temperature. The samples showed cracks and charring of the tooth structure with microscopic findings such as widening of dentinal tubules and altered histological staining.


Evaluation of incinerated dental remains may provide additional forensic investigative avenues in victim identification because of the consistency of morphological changes, the histological patterns at temperatures that are commonly encountered in common domestic fires.


Forensic fire investigation; heat; histological patterns


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September 2014
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Myositis ossificans traumatica of temporalis and medial pterygoid muscle

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2014 May-Aug; 18(2): 271–275. doi: 10.4103/0973-029X.140781

J Oral Maxillofacial Pathology.

ABSTRACTMyositis ossificans is a rare disease that is characterized by bone deposition in the muscle or soft tissues. Myositis ossificans of the masticatory muscles is an uncommon finding. The condition is benign and results in heterotopic bone formation in the muscles of mastication, usually producing limitation of opening of the jaws. It is important to know the exact cause of the limitation of opening of the jaws for successful treatment. Computed tomographic scan and panoramic radiographs along with histological findings are essential diagnostic aids for evaluating conditions such as myositis ossificans. A rare case of myositis ossificans traumatica of temporalis and medial pterygoid muscle is presented here along with the discussion of clinical, radiological and histological features. The present case emphasizes not only on the importance of considering myositis ossificans in the differential diagnosis of limitation of opening of the jaws but also on the improvement of the overall mouth opening and treatment results.Keywords: Myositis ossificans, medial pterygoid muscle, trauma, temporalis muscledoi: 10.4103/0973-029X.140781PMCID: PMC4196299PMID: 25328311

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June 2014
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Pediatric Odontogenic Tumor of the Jaw – A Case Report

J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Feb; 8(2): 250–252.

J Clin Diagn Res

AbstractCentral jaw tumors (intra osseous) in children occur infrequently and few oral pathologists have had the opportunity or experience in diagnosing these lesions and predicting their biological behavior. Some children are not diagnosed correctly at the initial stages as having a neoplasm and are wrongly treated for infections by antibiotic administration. Subsequent to an unresponsive antibiotic therapy radiographs are taken to reveal a radiolucent or radio dense lesion in the jaws. Finally a tissue diagnosis becomes necessary in order to diagnose and initiate proper therapy. One among the central jaw tumors that occur infrequently in children is Ameloblastoma. It is often aggressive and destructive, with the capacity to attain great size, erode bone and invade adjacent structures. Ameloblastoma not only accounts for 1% of all tumors of maxilla and mandible but also 11% of all odontogenic tumors. It has a high percentage of local recurrence rate and possible malignant development when treated inadequately. Here we present a central jaw tumor in an 8-year-old child which was a case of unusually large plexiform ameloblastoma involving entire ramus up to the condyle, and part of body of the mandible.Keywords: Plexiform ameloblastoma, Odontogenic tumor, Mandibledoi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/7650.4073PMCID: PMC3972578PMID: 24701548

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February 2014
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Microenvironment-a role in tumor progression and prognosis. . 2013; 7(9):2096-9. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6619.3419. PMID: 24179956 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3809695. 

J Clinical Diagnostics Res2013 Sep;7(9):2096-9. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6619.3419.

J Clinical Diagnostics Res

AbstractIn addition to malignant cells, solid tumours comprise supporting stromal tissue that consists of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM), connective tissue cells, inflammatory cells and blood vessels. The stromal compartment and the malignant cells together shape the tumour microenvironment that in turn determines tumour progression and efficacy of anti-tumour treatments. It is now recognized that the host microenvironment undergoes extensive change during the evolution and progression of cancer. This involves the generation of Tumour-Associated Fibroblasts (TAFs), which, through release of growth factors and cytokines, lead to enhanced angiogenesis, increased tumour growth and invasion. It has also been demonstrated that TAFs may modulate the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) phenotype, which has therapeutic implications. Understanding the various components in the tumour microenvironment may afford us the opportunity to develop new drugs that target these reversible nonmutational events in the prevention and treatment of cancer.KEYWORDS: Cancer Stem cells; Cytokines; Extra Cellular Matrix; Tumour associated FibroblastsPMID: 24179956 PMCID: PMC3809695 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/6619.3419

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September 2013
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Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Anodontia: A Rare Case—Rehabilitation by Prosthetic Management - CASE REPORTS

Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and RadiologyDOI 10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1326

Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology

ABSTRACTEctodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disorder characterized by developmental dystrophies of ectodermal derivatives. It is characterized by triad of signs comprising sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth and inability to sweat. This case of 12-year-old boy with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and complete anodontia of both primary and permanent dentition is presented. Owing to the need for treatment at an early age for anodontia and due to the ill-formed maxillary and mandibular residual ridges, the prosthetic management can be difficult. Complete dentures with soft liners and hollow maxillary denture were provided to encourage normal psychological development and to improve the function of the stomatognathic system.Keywords: Ectodermal dysplasia, Anodontia, Soft liner.How to cite this article: Kumar MN, Srinivas P, Ramadevi S, Prasad SR, Ajayprakash P, Sudhakar M. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Anodontia: A Rare Case- Rehabilitation by Prosthetic Management. J Indian Aca Oral Med Radiol 2012;24(4):342-345.Source of support: NilConflict of interest: None declaredDOI10.5005/jp-journals-10011-1326ISSN0972-1363JournalTitleJournal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology

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December 2012
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Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the mandible

Indian Journal of Dental Research, 23 (6) Nov-Dec 2012 doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.111292. PMID: 23649086 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Indian Journal of Dental Research.


Metastatic tumors are of great significance since few cases may represent the only symptom of an undiscovered underlying malignancy. Metastatic tumors rarely metastasize to the oral region despite the fact that many common primary neoplasms frequently metastasize to bone. The true incidence of metastatic tumors in the bones of the jaw is unknown, as jaws are not always included in radiographic skeletal surveys for metastasis. Sometimes oral metastasis may be the first evidence of metastasis from its primary site. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the mandible is presented here, along with the discussion of clinical and histological features. The present case not only emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in the differential diagnosis of a radiolucent lesion in the mandible, but also emphasizes in the improvement of the overall survival rate and treatment results by an early detection of metastatic disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE] 

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November 2012
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Osteosarcoma of the mandible--a case report of a rare variant.

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements October 1, 2012, doi: 10.5866/4.4.998

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements > October 1, 2012

Osteosarcoma (OS), most common primary tumor of bone, is a malignant mesenchymal tumor characterized frankly to subtly anaplastic stromal cells with evidence of direct formation of osteoid and/or primitive bone by these cells. Bone or osteoid formation within tumor is characteristic of osteosarcoma. It accounts for approximately 20% of sarcomas, 19% of all malignant tumors of bone but only 5% osteosarcomas occur in jaws. OS of the jaws is an exceptionally rare entity with an incidence of 0.7 per million. (1-3) Despite its histopathologic similarities with long bones osteosarcoma, OS of the jaws is biologically different. Jaw osteosarcoma presents a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features along with highly variable histopathology. Jaw osteosarcomas usually present in third & fourth decades of life, almost a decade after their presentation in long bone tumors. Males are slightly more commonly affected than females. Maxilla & Mandible are equally involved. Mandibular tumors arise more frequently in posterior body and horizontal ramus, whereas maxillary tumours are discovered more commonly in alveolar ridge, sinus floor, and palate. (4) The most common presenting features are increase tumour volume, pain, ulceration and neurological disorders. Radiological appearances manifest as mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion, periodontal ligament widening, radiopaque masses with moth eaten appearance, codman triangle and sunburst appearance. (5) Osteosarcomas arise in several clinical settings, including pre-existing bone abnormalities such as Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, giant cell tumor, multiple osteochondroma, bone infarct, chronic osteomyelitis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and with history of radiation exposure. (6) doi: 10.5866/4.4.998 Available Online: January, 2013 (www.nacd.in) [c] NAD, 2012--All rights reserved 

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October 2012
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Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study.

J Forensic Dent Sci. 2012 Jul;4(2):66-9. doi: 10.4103/0975-1475.109887

J Forensic Dent Sci.

AbstractCONTEXT: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined.AIMS: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women.SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology). The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation.RESULTS: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies.CONCLUSION: The study showed that the presence of Barr body in buccal mucosal cells can be demonstrated with a fair degree of accuracy using acridine orange confocal microscopy. The sex of the individual can be determined accurately with other advantages offered, such as the rapidity of processing and screening a specimen that results in saving of time.KEYWORDS: Acridine orange staining; Barr body; confocal microscope; exfoliative cytology; sex determinationPMID: 23741144 PMCID: PMC3669479 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1475.109887

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July 2012
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Rapidly progressive proliferative verrucous Leukoplakia- Case Report & Diagnostic Difficulties,

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements,3(3),632,2011 doi:10.5866/3.3.632 http://nacd.in/Ijda/03/03

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements,

ABSTRACT:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a form of oral leukoplakia, which was first described in 1985 by Hansen et al. PVL is reported by various authors as very aggressive form of Leukoplakia due to its high rate of recurrence and a high rate of malignant transformation. Aetiology of PVL remains unclear as well as its diagnosis and management. In this article a case report and the criteria for diagnosis of Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia are discussed.Oral leukoplakia (leuko = white; plakia = patch) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “a white patch or plaque that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other disease.”The term is strictly a clinical one and does not imply a specific histopathologic tissue alteration.1Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare oral leukoplakia, characterized by proliferation, multiple foci of occurrences, and high rate of malignant transformation.2 Due to this since 1985, PVL been segregated from other types of leukoplakia by Hansen.3 The aetiology of PVL is unclear. Unlike other forms of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell cancer, PVL lesions are not strongly associated with a history of alcohol or tobacco use or the presence of candidiasis, nor has evidence of immunodeficiency or vitamin deficiency.3Viruses including human papillomavirus (HPV)4and Epstein-Barr virus5 have been said to play a role in occurrence of PVL.doi:10.5866/3.3.632INDIAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL ADVANCEMENTSJournal homepage: www. nacd. in

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July 2011
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Pemphigus vulgaris A Case Report,

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements, Vol 1(1) 2009,

Indian Journal of Dental Advancements, Vol 1(1) 2009,

Pemphigus vulgaris is a severe autoimmune disorder of the skin and mucous membranes that is characterised by the formation of bulla. Oral mucosa plays an important role in the natural history of Pemphigus vulgaris. In approximately 50-70 percent of patients, the disease starts in the oral cavity and the lesions in oral mucosa precede the cutaneous lesions by several months. Very rarely lesions remain restricted to oral mucosa for prolonged period. We here in report one such case recently seen by us, where oral lesions are predominant with little or no skin lesions.Key words:Pemphigus, sub epithelial blister, acantholysis, suprabasilar split suprabasilar splitCASE REPORTINDIAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL ADVANCEMENTSJournal homepage: www.nacd.in

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September 2009
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Sex Determination using AMEL gene and Personal identification using HLA DQ from DNA isolated from dental pulp in

Journal of Forensic Odontology Vol.1 Issue 1, Jan 2008, 26-29.

Journal of Forensic Odontology

Odontological examinations has been a critical determinant in the search for identifying the human remains where positive identification is not practical due to destruction of the soft tissues.Recent advances in molecular biology allows amplification of DNA from human blood , dental p[ulp and other tissues using PCR , thus facilitating gender and personal identification.The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of utilizing DNA retrieved from pulp of human teeth by AMEL gene typing by PCR.This study based on PCR methods was sensitive and has shown to be successful for human identification , with complete specificity and proves Amelogenin gene is  as an excellent marker in sex or gender Identification.Key words;- AMEL gene , Human identification , Dental Pulp

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January 2008
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HLADQ€-A Gene Marker for Human Identification in

Journal of Oral & Maxillo Facial Pathology Vol.8 Issue 1 Jan-June 2004

Journal of Oral & Maxillo Facial Pathology

odontological examinations has been a critical determinant in the search for identifying the human remains where positive identification is not practical due to destruction of the soft tissues.Recent advances in molecular biology allows amplification of DNA from human blood , dental p[ulp and other tissues using PCR , thus facilitating gender and personal identification.

the aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of utilizing DNA retrieved from pulp of human teeth by HLA DQ alpha  typing using reverse dot blot technique.The study was conducted on sample of 9 individual teeth from tired human skulls and blood samples was collected from the suspected biological relations ( Maternal and Paternal ).

This study based on PCR methods was sensitive and has shown to be successful for human identification , with complete specificity and proves HLADQ alpha as an excellent marker in Human Identification.

Key words;- HLADQ alpha , Human identification , Dental Pulp

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January 2004
2 Reads

Lip prints

Indian Journal of Dental Research,Vol 12 No.4, Oct.Dec.2001 PMID:11987663 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Indian Journal of Dental Research,


External surface of the lip has many elevations and depressions forming a characteristic pattern called lip prints, examination of which is referred to as cheiloscopy. This is unique for individuals like the finger prints. The biological phenomenon of systems of furrows on the red part of the human lips was first noted and described by anthropologist R.S. Fischer, in 1902. However until 1930, anthropology merely mentioned the existence of furrows without suggesting a practical use for the phenomenon. Since 1950, the Japanese have carried out extensive research in this matter. In the period 1968 to 1971, Y.T Suchhihashi and T. Suzuki examined 1364 persons at the department of forensic odontology at Tokyo university and established that the arrangement of lines on the red part of the human lips is individual and unique for each human being. Lip print recording is helpful in forensic investigation that deals with identification of humans, based on lip traces. A lip print may be revealed as a surface with visible elements of lines representing the furrows. This characteristic pattern helps to identify the individuals since it is unique for individuals. When the lines are not clear (Only the shape of lines is printed), individual identification of human being based on this trace is extremely difficult, unless the trace contains more individual characteristics like scars, clefts etc, and often identification ends with group identification.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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October 2001
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