Publications by authors named "Zonghua Wang"

263 Publications

Rice ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme OsUBC26 is essential for immunity to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemistry Biology, Ministry of Education, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

The functions of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) in plant immunity are not well understood. In this study, OsUBC26, a rice ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, was characterized in the defence against Magnaporthe oryzae. The expression of OsUBC26 was induced by M. oryzae inoculation and methyl jasmonate treatment. Both RNA interference lines and CRISPR/Cas9 null mutants of OsUBC26 reduced rice resistance to M. oryzae. WRKY45 was down-regulated in OsUBC26 null mutants. In vitro E2 activity assay indicated that OsUBC26 is an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Yeast two-hybrid assays using OsUBC26 as bait identified the RING-type E3 ligase UCIP2 as an interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the interaction between OsUBC26 and UCIP2. The CRISPR/Cas9 mutants of UCIP2 also showed compromised resistance to M. oryzae. Yeast two-hybrid screening using UCIP2 as bait revealed that APIP6 is a binding partner of UCIP2. Moreover, OsUBC26 working with APIP6 ubiquitinateds AvrPiz-t, an avirulence effector of M. oryzae, and OsUBC26 null mutation impaired the proteasome degradation of AvrPiz-t in rice cells. In summary, OsUBC26 plays important roles in rice disease resistance by regulating WRKY45 expression and working with E3 ligases such as APIP6 to counteract the effector protein AvrPiz-t from M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13132DOI Listing
August 2021

Integration of Multiple Redox Centers into Porous Coordination Networks for Ratiometric Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 17;13(34):40847-40852. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong Sino-Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials, Instrumental Analysis Center of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.

The application of porphyrin metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a ratiometric electrochemical sensing platform is still unexplored. In this paper, we report a ratiometric electrochemical sensor by the integration of multiple redox centers into porphyrin MOFs for the detection of dissolved oxygen (DO). Specifically, the ferrocene (Fc) group was integrated into the nanosized PCN-222(Fe) (PCN = porous coordination networks) via acid-base reaction to synthesize the [email protected](Fe) composite with two redox centers of the Fc group and Fe-porphyrin. The Fc group that is insensitive to DO serves as an internal reference, and the Fe-porphyrin in PCN-222(Fe) is a DO indicator. The ratios of the cathodic currents for the two redox centers exhibit a linear relationship with DO concentrations from 2.8 to 28.9 mg mL and a limit of detection of 0.3 mg mL. In addition, the ratiometric electrochemical sensor has high selectivity and stability for DO sensing results from the [email protected](Fe) composite. Because there are numerous redox centers, such as methylene blue and thionine, which can be integrated into MOFs, many MOF-based ratiometric electrochemical sensors can be simply developed for high-performance biosensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c13601DOI Listing
September 2021

Aptamer and bifunctional enzyme co-functionalized MOF-derived porous carbon for low-background electrochemical aptasensing.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong Sino-Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials, Instrumental Analysis Center of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

To improve the efficiency of aptasensors, a signal amplification strategy by coupling tyrosinase (Tyr)-triggered redox cycling with nanoscale porous carbon (NCZIF) has been proposed. The NCZIF was obtained by calcining ZIF-8 crystals in an inert atmosphere. It had high surface areas, great biocompatibility, and ease of functionalization, which was beneficial for immobilizing sufficient Tyr and aptamer covalently. When the target prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was present, the NCZIF functionalized with Tyr and an aptamer bound to the aptamer-modified Au electrode specifically through the sandwich structure. Then, Tyr acted to oxidize the electroinactive phenol, which led to low-background signal, in the substrate to electroactive catechol, and triggered the redox cycling under the action of NADH. The low detection limit of the proposed electrochemical aptasensor for PSA was 0.01 ng mL, and the wide detection range was from 0.01 to 50 ng mL. The use of ZIF-8 derived porous carbon and Tyr-triggered redox cycling system provided a promising solution for the development of simple, rapid, reliable, and low-background aptasensing methods, which had great potential in the field of disease diagnosis and biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03585-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Pathogen-Mediated Stomatal Opening: A Previously Overlooked Pathogenicity Strategy in the Oomycete Pathogen .

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:668797. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

, the most damaging oomycete pathogen of potato, is specialized to grow sporangiophore through opened stomata for secondary inoculum production. However, it is still unclear which metabolic pathways in potato are manipulated by in the guard cell-pathogen interactions to open the stomata. Here microscopic observations and cell biology were used to investigate antagonistic interactions between guard cells and the oomycete pathogen. We observed that the antagonistic interactions started at the very beginning of infection. Stomatal movement is an important part of the immune response of potato to infection and this occurs through guard cell death and stomatal closure. We observed that appeared to manipulate metabolic processes in guard cells, such as triacylglycerol (TAG) breakdown, starch degradation, HO scavenging, and NO catabolism, which are involved in stomatal movement, to evade these stomatal defense responses. The signal transduction pathway of -induced stomatal opening likely starts from HO and NO scavenging, along with TAG breakdown while the subsequent starch degradation reinforces the opening process by strengthening guard cell turgor and opening the stomata to their maximum aperture. These results suggest that stomata are a barrier stopping from completing its life cycle, but this host defense system can be bypassed through the manipulation of diverse metabolic pathways that may be induced by effector proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.668797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8311186PMC
July 2021

Perceived Stress and Life Satisfaction Among Chinese Clinical Nursing Teachers: A Moderated Mediation Model of Burnout and Emotion Regulation.

Front Psychiatry 2021 8;12:548339. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Field Nursing, School of Nursing, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Our previous study indicated that clinical teaching nurses in China suffered high levels of perceived stress and burnout, mainly because they were taking double responsibilities of nursing and teaching at the same time. The study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of how and when perceived stress increased the risk of burnout and decreased life satisfaction among clinical teaching nurses. Questionnaires about perceived stress, burnout, emotion regulation, and life satisfaction were self-administered to 1,372 teaching nurses from eight tertiary military hospitals in China. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that perceived stress had direct and indirect impacts on life satisfaction, with the principal element of burnout-emotional exhaustion-acting as a mediator. Moreover, the association between perceived stress and emotional exhaustion was moderated by emotion suppression-a key emotion regulation strategy. The negative impact of perceived stress on burnout was stronger among teaching nurses with high emotion suppression than among those with low emotion suppression. The present study contributed to a deeper understanding of the relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction and also suggested further research into emotion regulation interventions to alleviate or eliminate the impact of perceived stress on burnout and eventually improve the life satisfaction for Chinese clinical nursing teachers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.548339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295563PMC
July 2021

MoCpa1-mediated arginine biosynthesis is crucial for fungal growth, conidiation, and plant infection of Magnaporthe oryzae.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Aug 22;105(14-15):5915-5929. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fujian Universities Key Laboratory for Plant-Microbe Interaction, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Arginine is an important amino acid involved in processes such as cell signal transduction, protein synthesis, and sexual reproduction. To understand the biological roles of arginine biosynthesis in pathogenic fungi, we used Cpa1, the carbamoyl phosphate synthase arginine-specific small chain subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a query to identify its ortholog in the Magnaporthe oryzae genome and named it MoCpa1. MoCpa1 is a 471-amino acid protein containing a CPSase_sm_chain domain and a GATase domain. MoCpa1 transcripts were highly expressed at the conidiation, early-infection, and late-infection stages of the fungus. Targeted deletion of the MoCPA1 gene resulted in a ΔMocpa1 mutant exhibiting arginine auxotrophy on minimum culture medium (MM), confirming its role in de novo arginine biosynthesis. The ΔMocpa1 mutant presented significantly decreased sporulation with some of its conidia being defective in morphology. Furthermore, the ΔMocpa1 mutant was nonpathogenic on rice and barley leaves, which was a result of defects in appressorium-mediated penetration and restricted invasive hyphal growth within host cells. Addition of exogenous arginine partially rescued conidiation and pathogenicity defects on the barley and rice leaves, while introduction of the MoCPA1 gene into the ΔMocpa1 mutant fully complemented the lost phenotype. Further confocal microscopy examination revealed that MoCpa1 is localized in the mitochondria. In summary, our results demonstrate that MoCpa1-mediated arginine biosynthesis is crucial for fungal development, conidiation, appressorium formation, and infection-related morphogenesis in M. oryzae, thus serving as an attractive target for mitigating obstinate fungal plant pathogens. KEY POINTS: • MoCpa1 is important for aerial hyphal growth and arginine biosynthesis. • MoCpa1 is pivotal for conidial morphogenesis and appressorium formation. • MoCpa1 is crucial for full virulence in M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11437-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Preparation of chitosan-modified magnetic Schiff base network composite nanospheres for effective enrichment and detection of hippuric acid and 4-methyl hippuric acid.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Aug 28;1652:462373. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Instrumental Analysis Center of Qingdao University, Shandong Sino-Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Chitosan-modified magnetic Schiff base network composite nanospheres ([email protected]@Chitosan) were prepared for the enrichment and detection of hippuric acid (HA) and 4-methyl hippuric acid (4-MHA) via magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) connected with HPLC. The SNW was one of the covalent organic framework, which constructed through covalent bonds, shown comprising solvent stability, low density and accessible pores. The obtained [email protected]@Chitosan has many merits as a magnetic sorbent, including a hydrophilic surface, uniform pore size, unique ordered channel structure, and superparamagnetism. The favourable linearity of this MSPE-HPLC method was in the range of 1-1000 μg L, and LODs of HA and 4-MHA were 0.3 μg L and 0.2 μg L, respectively. The recoveries in urine samples were range from 95.3 to 109.0 % with the RSD less than 9.6 %. When employed for the enrichment of HA and 4-MHA, [email protected]@Chitosan exhibited great potential as a candidate for preconcentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462373DOI Listing
August 2021

Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E Positively Modulates Conidiogenesis, Appressorium Formation, Host Invasion and Stress Homeostasis in the Filamentous Fungi .

Front Plant Sci 2021 16;12:646343. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Fujian University Key Laboratory for Plant-Microbe Interaction, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Translation initiation factor eIF4E generally mediates the recognition of the 5'cap structure of mRNA during the recruitment of the ribosomes to capped mRNA. Although the eIF4E has been shown to regulate stress response in positively, there is no direct experimental evidence for the contributions of eIF4E to both physiological and pathogenic development of filamentous fungi. We generated () gene deletion strains using homologous recombination strategies. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses of defective strains showed that the deletion of triggered a significant reduction in growth and conidiogenesis. We also showed that disruption of partially impaired conidia germination, appressorium integrity and attenuated the pathogenicity of Δ strains. In summary, this study provides experimental insights into the contributions of the eIF4E3 to the development of filamentous fungi. Additionally, these observations underscored the need for a comprehensive evaluation of the translational regulatory machinery in phytopathogenic fungi during pathogen-host interaction progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.646343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244596PMC
June 2021

A general scattering proximity immunoassay with the formation of dimer of gold nanoparticle.

Talanta 2021 Oct 26;233:122515. Epub 2021 May 26.

Shandong Sino-Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, PR China.

In this work, we structured a colorimetric ultrasensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) based on a proximity hybridization-induced gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) dimers structure. Under the dark-field microscope, this method takes advantage of the distinctive and strong distance-relative localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au NPs and their oriented assembly. DNA served as a medium showing wonderful flexibility to label antibody and Au NPs, and tune interparticle spacing as well. Two capture probes were formed by the integration of DNA labeled antibody (DNA1-Ab1 or DNA2-Ab2) and asymmetrically assembled DNA (DNA 3 or DNA 4)- Au NPs via partly hybridization between DNA sequences. In the presence of antigen, the reaction between target protein and capture probes could trigger the generation of immunocomplex which led to the proximity hybridization of the DNA1 and DNA2, and then change the distance of interparticle to form Au NP dimers and thus showed a different color under dark-field microscope. A limit of detection of 14.25 pg/mL was obtained for the detection of CEA, which indicated a promising sensing method in clinical diagnosis of protein biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122515DOI Listing
October 2021

Is Important for Vegetative Growth, Conidiogenesis, Maintenance of Cell Wall Integrity and Pathogenesis of .

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;7(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Fujian Universities Key Laboratory for Plant-Microbe Interaction, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid that acts as a principal source of nitrogen and nucleic acid biosynthesis in living organisms. In , glutamine synthetase catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine. To determine the role of glutamine synthetase in the development and pathogenicity of plant fungal pathogens, we used Gln1 amino acid sequence to identify its orthologs in and named them MoGln1, MoGln2, and MoGln3. Deletion of and showed that they are not involved in the development and pathogenesis of . Conversely, Δ was reduced in vegetative growth, experienced attenuated growth on Minimal Medium (MM), and exhibited hyphal autolysis on oatmeal and straw decoction and corn media. Exogenous l-glutamine rescued the growth of Δ on MM. The Δ mutant failed to produce spores and was nonpathogenic on barley leaves, as it was unable to form an appressorium-like structure from its hyphal tips. Furthermore, deletion of altered the fungal cell wall integrity, with the Δ mutant being hypersensitive to HO. MoGln1, MoGln2, and MoGln3 are located in the cytoplasm. Taken together, our results shows that is important for vegetative growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, maintenance of cell wall integrity, oxidative stress tolerance and pathogenesis of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7060463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229676PMC
June 2021

Rational Design of Meso-Phosphino-Substituted BODIPY Probes for Imaging Hypochlorite in Living Cells and Mice.

Anal Chem 2021 07 1;93(27):9640-9646. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.

Meso-phosphino-substituted BODIPY probes were developed for concise and rapid detection of hypochlorite (ClO). Interestingly, the probe gave a turn-on fluorescence response by shutting the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) effect and extending the coplanar conjugated π-system. In contrast, the probe showed a colorimetric response toward ClO. The key role of the steric repulsions was revealed to be for altering the electronic distribution of the BODIPY core, resulting in these obviously different responses. Finally, the probe , with high selectivity and sensitivity toward ClO (LOD = 1.9 nM; response time, <15 s), was further employed in imaging the variations of exogenous and endogenous hypochlorite (ClO) in living RAW 264.7 cells and mouse inflammation models. If wisely utilized, this strategy with meso-phosphino BODIPY dyes may serve as a powerful platform for the preparation of novel chemosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02025DOI Listing
July 2021

Genomic and Chemical Investigation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites From a Marine-Derived Fungus P2648.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:600991. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, China.

Marine fungi of the genus are rich resources of secondary metabolites, showing a variety of biological activities. Our anti-bacterial screening revealed that the crude extract from a coral-derived fungus P2648 showed strong activity against some pathogenic bacteria. Genome sequencing and mining uncovered that there are 28 secondary metabolite gene clusters in P2648, potentially involved in the biosynthesis of antibacterial compounds. Chemical isolation and structural determination suggested citrinin is the dominant component of the crude extracts of P2648, and our further tests confirmed that citrinin showed excellent activities against various pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, the gene cluster containing a homolog of the polyketide synthase CitS was identified as the citrinin biosynthesis gene cluster through genetic analysis. Interestingly, three isoquinoline alkaloids were unexpectedly activated and isolated from the mutant and structural determination by using high-resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS), 1D, and 2D NMR. Further antibacterial assays displayed that compounds 1 and 2, but not compound 3, showed moderate activities against two antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 16-32 μg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that citrinin and isoquinoline alkaloids represent as the major antibacterial agents in the coral-associated fungus P2648, and our genomic and chemical analyses present evidence in support of P2648 as a potent natural products source for anti-bacterial drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.600991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211754PMC
June 2021

The Exocyst Regulates Hydrolytic Enzyme Secretion at Hyphal Tips and Septa in the Banana Fusarium Wilt Fungus Fusarium odoratissimum.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 08 11;87(17):e0308820. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry Universitygrid.256111.0, Fuzhou, China.

Hyphal polarized growth in filamentous fungi requires tip-directed secretion, while additional evidence suggests that fungal exocytosis for the hydrolytic enzyme secretion can occur at other sites in hyphae, including the septum. In this study, we analyzed the role of the exocyst complex involved in the secretion in the banana wilt fungal pathogen Fusarium odoratissimum. All eight exocyst components in not only localized to the tips ahead of the Spitzenkörper in growing hyphae but also localized to the outer edges of septa in mature hyphae. To further analyze the exocyst in , we attempted single gene deletion for all the genes encoding the eight exocyst components and only succeeded in constructing the gene deletion mutants for and ; we suspect that the other 6 exocyst components are encoded by essential genes. Deletion of or led to defects in vegetative growth, conidiation, and pathogenicity in . Notably, the deletion of resulted in decreased activities for endoglucosidase, filter paper enzymes, and amylase, while the loss of only led to a slight reduction in amylase activity. Septum-localized α-amylase (AmyB) was identified as the marker for septum-directed secretion, and we found that Exo70 is essential for the localization of AmyB to septa. Meanwhile the loss of Sec5 did not affect AmyB localization to septa but led to a higher accumulation of AmyB in cytoplasm. This suggested that while Exo70 and Sec5 both take part in the septum-directed secretion, the two play different roles in this process. The exocyst complex is a multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) for secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane and contains eight subunits, Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84. While the exocyst complex is well defined in eukaryotes from yeast () to humans, the exocyst components in filamentous fungi show different localization patterns in the apical tips of hyphae, which suggests that filamentous fungi have evolved divergent strategies to regulate endomembrane trafficking. In this study, we demonstrated that the exocyst components in Fusarium odoratissimum are localized not only to the tips of growing hyphae but also to the outer edge of the septa in mature hyphae, suggesting that the exocyst complex plays a role in the regulation of septum-directed protein secretion in . We further found that Exo70 and Sec5 are required for the septum-directed secretion of α-amylase in but with different influences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03088-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357298PMC
August 2021

MoSep3 and MoExo70 are needed for MoCK2 ring assembly essential for appressorium function in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Sep 11;22(9):1159-1164. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

State Key Laboratory for Ecological Pest Control of Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Polar growth during appressorium formation is vital for the penetration peg formation in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Previous research has shown that the Sln1-septin-exocyst complex, localized at the base of the appressorium in contact with the leaf surface, forms a ring structure that influences growth polarity and affects penetration peg formation, and is necessary for pathogenicity. Our previous research showed CK2 proteins assemble another ring structure positioned perpendicular to the Sln1-septin-exocyst complex. Our research showed that the CK2 ring needs to become correctly assembled for penetration peg function and subsequent plant infection. In the present study, we found that the ring structures of CK2 are absent in the appressorium of ΔMoSep3 septin deletion mutants lacking the septin ring of the Sln1-septin-exocyst complex. Sln1 affects the septin proteins that recruit the exocyst complex that localizes as another ring at the appressorium's bottom. Destruction of the exocyst complex by mutation also causes incorrect localization of the CK2 ring structure. In conclusion, CK2 probably takes part in reestablishing the appressorium' spolarity growth necessary for penetration peg formation. We can also conclude that the correct localization and assembly of one or more CK2 ring structures in the appressorium depend on the initial assembly of the Sln1-septin-exocyst complex two rings at the base of the appressorium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358994PMC
September 2021

The molecular mechanism underlying pathogenicity inhibition by sanguinarine in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Oct 24;77(10):4669-4679. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Fuzhou Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Sanguinarine (SAN) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that broadly targets a range of pathways in mammalian and fungal cells. In this study we set out to explore the molecular mechanism of sanguinarine inhibition of the fungal development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae with the hope that sanguinarine will bolster the development of antiblast agents.

Results: We found that the fungus exhibited a significant reduction in vegetative growth and hyphal melanization while the spores produced long germ tubes on the artificial hydrophobic surface characteristic of a defect in thigmotropic sensing when exposed to 4, 8 and 0.5 μm sanguinarine, respectively. Consistent with these findings, we observed that the genes involved in melanin biosynthesis and the fungal hydrophobin MoMPG1 were remarkably suppressed in mycelia treated with 8 μm sanguinarine. Additionally, sanguinarine inhibited appressorium formation at a dose of 1.0 μm and this defect was restored by supplementing 5 mM of exogenous cAMP. By qRT-PCR assay we found cAMP pathway signalling genes such as MoCAP1 and MoCpkA were significantly repressed whereas MoCDTF1 and MoSOM1 were upregulated in sanguinarine-treated strains. Furthermore, we showed that sanguinarine does not selectively inhibit vegetative growth and appressorium formation of Guy11 but also other strains of M. oryzae. Finally, treatment of sanguinarine impaired the appressorium-mediated penetration and pathogenicity of M. oryzae in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Based on our results we concluded that sanguinarine is an attractive antimicrobial candidate for fungicide development in the control of rice blast disease. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6508DOI Listing
October 2021

The molecular behavior of pyridinium/imidazolium based ionic liquids and toluene binary systems.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun 7;23(23):13300-13309. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Shandong Sino-Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Instrumental Analysis Center of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

Imidazolium and pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted increasing attention in the extraction of aromatic VOCs. However, fundamental studies on the mechanism of capturing aromatic VOCs have been less reported. In this work, the interactions between two ILs, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIMTFSI) and N-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BpyTFSI), and toluene (CHCH), were investigated by using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), excess infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Some conclusions were obtained as follows: (1) H atoms on EMIMTFSI/BpyTFSI were located above or below the benzene ring and were mainly formed as C2-Hπ bonds and C2,6-Hπ bonds with CHCH, respectively. C-Hπ bonds played a significant role in capturing aromatic compounds. (2) Upon adding CHCH, the two IL-CHCH system's interaction strength was as follows: EMIMTFSI-CHCH > BpyTFSI-CHCH. (3) Since CHCH was unable to disrupt the interactions between cations and anions of ion pairs in the two studied IL-CHCH systems, only ion cluster-CHCH and ion pair-CHCH complexes were observed. This work may provide theoretical insights into the separation mechanism for capturing VOCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00874aDOI Listing
June 2021

Enhanced electrochemiluminescence ratiometric cytosensing based on surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles and nanosucculent films.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 1;189:113367. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Shandong Sino-Japanese Center for Collaborative Research of Carbon Nanomaterials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, PR China.

Ramos cells are human Burkitt's lymphoma cells, which are a kind of cancer cells to facilitate the monitoring of the relevant biological processes of cancers. Sensitive and accurate detection of Ramos cells using emerging ratiometric ECL biosensing technology shows increasing importance, however, the target analytes of current ratiometric ECL biosensors are mainly limited to DNA/RNA or proteins. In this study, we proposed a dual-potential ratiometric sensing strategy for the electrochemiluminescence detection of Ramos cells based on two types of electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-responding molecular. Au nanosucculent films (AuNFs) were electrodeposited on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode to increase the effective area of the electrode for more efficient assembly of DNA and effectively improving the conductivity of the sensing interfaces. In the presence of Ramos cells, aptamers capped with [email protected] would conjugate with Ramos cells and then remove from AuNFs, accompanying the decrease of ECL signal from [email protected] Then, Au-DNA was captured and alternately hybridized with DNA-modified CdS nanocrystals (NCs) on the surface of AuNFs with the formation of a super reticulate structure. The reticulate structure not only raised another identified ECL signal from CdS NCs but also greatly promoted its ECL intensity from the surface plasmon resonance originating from Au NPs. The value of log (ECL/ECL) and the logarithm of the number of cells exhibit considerable linear relation ranging from 80 to 8 × 10 cells mL with a low detection limit of 20 cells mL (S/N = 3). The selectivity and specificity of this dual-potential ECL sensor showed good performance and indicated considerable promise in avoiding false-positive results in detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113367DOI Listing
October 2021

The Interaction between Rice Genotype and Magnaporthe oryzae Regulates the Assembly of Rice Root-Associated Microbiota.

Rice (N Y) 2021 May 11;14(1):40. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Utilizating the plant microbiome to enhance pathogen resistance in crop production is an emerging alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. However, the diversity and structure of the microbiota, and the assembly mechanisms of root-associated microbial communities of plants are still poorly understood.

Results: We invstigated the microbiota of the root endosphere and rhizosphere soils of the rice cultivar Nipponbare (NPB) and its Piz-t-transgenic line (NPB-Piz-t) when infected with the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) isolate KJ201, using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing. The rhizosphere soils showed higher bacterial and fungal richness and diversity than the endosphere except for fungal richness in the rhizosphere soils of the mock treatment. Bacteria richness and diversity increased in the endospheric communities of NPB and Piz-t under inoculation with KJ201 (referred to as 'NPB-KJ201' and 'Piz-t-KJ201', respectively) compared with the corresponding mock treatments, with the NPB-KJ201 showing the highest diversity in the four bacterial endocompartments. In contrast, fungal richness and diversity decreased in the endospheric communities of NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201, relative to the corresponding mock treatments, with NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201 having the lowest richness and diversity, respectively, across the four fungal endocompartments. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the microbiota of Piz-t-KJ201 of root endophytes were mostly remarkablely distinct from that of NPB-KJ201. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the key contributors to the bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Furthermore, a comparative metabolic analysis showed that the contents of tryptophan metabolism and indole alkaloid biosynthesis were significantly lower in the Piz-t-KJ201 plants.

Conclusions: In this study, we compared the diversity, composition, and assembly of microbial communities associated with the rhizosphere soils and endosphere of Piz-t-KJ201 and NPB-KJ201. On the basis of the different compositions, diversities, and assemblies of the microbial communities among different compartments, we propose that the host genotype and inoculation pattern of M. oryzae played dominant roles in determining the microbial community assemblage. Further metabolomics analysis revealed that some metabolites may influence changes in bacterial communities. This study improves our understanding of the complex interactions between rice and M. oryzae, which could be useful in developing new strategies to improve rice resistance through the manipulation of soil microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00486-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113375PMC
May 2021

Current progress on pathogenicity-related transcription factors in Fusarium oxysporum.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jul 9;22(7):882-895. Epub 2021 May 9.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Fusarium oxysporum is a well-known soilborne plant pathogen that causes severe vascular wilt in economically important crops worldwide. During the infection process, F. oxysporum not only secretes various virulence factors, such as cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), effectors, and mycotoxins, that potentially play important roles in fungal pathogenicity but it must also respond to extrinsic abiotic stresses from the environment and the host. Over 700 transcription factors (TFs) have been predicted in the genome of F. oxysporum, but only 26 TFs have been functionally characterized in various formae speciales of F. oxysporum. Among these TFs, a total of 23 belonging to 10 families are required for pathogenesis through various mechanisms and pathways, and the zinc finger TF family is the largest family among these 10 families, which consists of 15 TFs that have been functionally characterized in F. oxysporum. In this review, we report current research progress on the 26 functionally analysed TFs in F. oxysporum and sort them into four groups based on their roles in F. oxysporum pathogenicity. Furthermore, we summarize and compare the biofunctions, involved pathways, putative targets, and homologs of these TFs and analyse the relationships among them. This review provides a systematic analysis of the regulation of virulence-related genes and facilitates further mechanistic analysis of TFs important in F. oxysporum virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232035PMC
July 2021

Development of a framework for managing severe burns through a 17-year retrospective analysis of burn epidemiology and outcomes.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9374. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Burn Research, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Gaotanyan Street No.30, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Burns are one of the most common injuries in daily life for all ages of population. This study was to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes among burn patients in one of the largest burn centers in the southwest of China. The study was performed at the Institute of Burn Research in the first affiliated with the Army Medical University (AMU). A total of 17,939 burn patients were included in this retrospective study. Information regarding burn epidemiology and outcomes in 17 years were collected, calculated and compared. The age ranged from 257 days to 95 years old. Scalding and flame were the two most common causes to burn injuries, comprising of 91.96% in total. Limbs, head/face/neck, and trunk were the most frequently occurred burn sites, with the number and the percent of 12,324 (68.70%), 7989 (44.53%), and 7771 (43.32%), respectively. The average total body surface area (TBSA) was 13.64 ± 16.83% (median 8%) with a range of 0.1-100%. A total of 874 (4.9%) patients had TBSA > 50%. The presence of a burn with an inhalation injury was confirmed in 543 patients (3.03%). The average LOS was 32.11 ± 65.72 days (median: 17 days). Eventually, the retrospective analysis resulted in the development of a burn management continuum used for developing strategies to prevent and manage severe burns. The annual number of burn injuries has kept decreasing, which was partially attributed to the increased awareness and education of burn prevention and the improved burn-preventative circumstances. However, the burn severity and the economic burden were still in a high level. And the gender difference and age difference should be considered when making individualized interventions and rehabilitative treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88507-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087787PMC
April 2021

Altitudinal Heterogeneity of UV Adaptation in Is Associated with the Spatial Distribution of a DNA Repair Gene.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 24;7(4). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

Climate change is considered a major threat to society and nature. UV irradiation is the most important environmental genotoxic agent. Thus, how elevated UV irradiation may influence human health and ecosystems has generated wide concern in the scientific community, as well as with policy makers and the public in general. In this study, we investigated patterns and mechanisms of UV adaptation in natural ecosystems by studying a gene-specific variation in the potato late blight pathogen, We compared the sequence characteristics of radiation sensitive 23 (), a gene involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway and UV tolerance, in isolates sampled from various altitudes. We found that lower genetic variation in the gene was caused by natural selection. The hypothesis that UV irradiation drives this selection was supported by strong correlations between the genomic characteristics and altitudinal origin (historic UV irradiation) of the sequences with UV tolerance of the isolates. These results indicate that the gene plays an important role in the adaptation of to UV stress. We also found that different climatic factors could work synergistically to determine the evolutionary adaptation of species, making the influence of climate change on ecological functions and resilience more difficult to predict. Future attention should aim at understanding the collective impact generated by simultaneous change in several climate factors on species adaptation and ecological sustainability, using state of the art technologies such as experimental evolution, genome-wide scanning, and proteomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7040245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064308PMC
March 2021

Large-Scale Genome Scanning within Exonic Regions Revealed the Contributions of Selective Sweep Prone Genes to Host Divergence and Adaptation in Species Complex.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 9;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory for Ecological Pest Control of Fujian and Taiwan Crops, The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

, one of the most notorious plant pathogens in the agronomic ecosystem, causes a destructive rice blast disease around the world. The blast fungus infects wide arrays of cultivated and non-cultivated plants within the Poaceae. Studies have shown that host speciation exerts selection pressure that drives the evolution and divergence of the population. Population genetic relationship deducted by genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms showed that differentiation is highly consistent with the host speciation process. In particular, the rice-infecting population of is distinct from populations from other hosts. However, how genome regions prone to host-mediated selection pressures associated with speciation in , especially at a large-scale population level, has not been extensively characterized. Here, we detected strong evidence of sweep selection throughout the genomes of rice and non-rice pathotypes of population using integrated haplotype score (iHS), cross population extended haplotype homozygosity (XPEHH), and cross population composite likelihood ratio (XPCLR) tests. Functional annotation analyses of the genes associated with host-mediated selection pressure showed that 14 pathogenicity-related genes are under positive selection pressure. Additionally, we showed that 17 candidate effector proteins are under positive and divergent selection among the blast fungus population through sweep selection analysis. Specifically, we find that a divergent selective gene, , is experiencing host-directed mutation in two amino acid residues in rice and non-rice infecting populations. These results provide a crucial insight into the impact of selective sweeping on the differentiation of populations and the dynamic influences of genomic regions in promoting host adaptation and speciation among species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000120PMC
March 2021

Corrigendum: The GTPase-Activating Protein FgGyp1 Is Important for Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, and Virulence and Negatively Regulates DON Biosynthesis in .

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:666050. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Marine and Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.621519.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.666050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982732PMC
March 2021

FvPex8 Is a Key Component of the Peroxisomal Docking/Translocation Module That Serves Important Roles in Fumonisin Biosynthesis but Not in Virulence.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Aug 16:MPMI10200273R. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2132, U.S.A.

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in eukaryotes that fulfill various important metabolic functions. In this study, we investigated the role of docking/translocation module (DTM) peroxins, mainly FvPex8, FvPex13, FvPex14, and FvPex33, in development, virulence, and fumonisin B (FB) biosynthesis. Protein interaction experiments suggested that FvPex13 serves as the central DTM subunit in . Notably, FvPex8 and FvPex14 did not show direct interaction in our experiments. We generated gene-deletion mutants (ΔFvpex8, ΔFvpex13, ΔFvpex14, ΔFvpex33, ΔFvpex33/14) and further examined the functional role of these peroxins. Deletion mutants exhibited disparity in carbon nutrient utilization and defect in cell-wall integrity when stress agents were applied. Under nutrient starvation, mutants also showed higher levels of lipid droplet accumulation. Particularly, ΔFvpex8 mutant showed significant FB reduction and altered expression of key FB biosynthesis genes. However, FvPex13 was primarily responsible for asexual conidia reproduction and virulence, while the ΔFvpex33/14 double mutant also showed a virulence defect. In summary, our study suggests that FvPex13 is the central component of DTM, with direct physical interaction with other DTM peroxins, and regulates peroxisome membrane biogenesis as well as PTS1- and PTS2-mediated transmembrane cargo transportation. Importantly, we also characterized FvPex8 as a key component in DTM that affects peroxisome function and FB biosynthesis.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-10-20-0273-RDOI Listing
August 2021

The GTPase-Activating Protein FgGyp1 Is Important for Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, and Virulence and Negatively Regulates DON Biosynthesis in .

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:621519. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Marine and Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Oceanography, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, China.

Ypt1 is a small Rab GTPase in yeast, Gyp1 functions at the Golgi as a negative regulator of Ypt1. Gyp1 homologs are conserved in filamentous fungi. However, the roles of Gyp1 in phytopathogenic fungi are still unclear. Herein, we investigated the functions of FgGyp1 in the wheat pathogen by live-cell imaging, genetic, and pathological analyses. Targeted gene replacement method was used to delete in . Phenotypic analyses showed that FgGyp1 is critically important not only for the vegetative growth of but also its conidiation. The mutant's vegetative growth was significantly reduced by 70% compared to the wild type PH-1. The virulence of deletion mutant was significantly decreased when compared with the wild type PH-1. We further found that FgGyp1 negatively regulates DON production of the fungus. Live-cell imaging clearly demonstrated that FgGyp1 mainly localizes to the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, the TBC domain, C-terminal, and N-terminal regions of FgGyp1 are found to be indispensable for its biological functions and normal localization. The Arg357 residue of FgGyp1 is essential for its functions but dispensable for the normal localization of the protein, while the Arg284 residue is not required for both the functions and normal localization of the protein. Furthermore, we showed that FgGyp1 essentially hydrolyzes the GTP-bound FgRab1 (activated form) to its corresponding GDP-bound (inactive) form , suggesting that FgGyp1 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for FgRab1. Finally, FgGyp1 was found to be important for FgSnc1-mediated fusion of secretory vesicles from the Golgi with the plasma membrane in . Put together, these data demonstrate that FgGyp1 functions as a GAP for FgRab1 and is important for vegetative growth, conidiation and virulence, and negatively regulates DON biosynthesis in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.621519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858271PMC
January 2021

The formation and evolution of centromeric satellite repeats in Saccharum species.

Plant J 2021 05 9;106(3):616-629. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biology & Key Laboratory of Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops (MOE), College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Centromeres in eukaryotes are composed of tandem DNAs and retrotransposons. However, centromeric repeats exhibit considerable diversity, even among closely related species, and their origin and evolution are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide characterization of the centromeric sequences in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Four centromeric tandem repeat sequences, So1, So103, So137 and So119, were isolated. So1 has a monomeric length of 137 bp, typical of a centromeric satellite, and has evolved four variants. However, these So1 variants had distinct centromere distributions and some were unique to an individual centromere. The distributions of the So1 variants were unexpectedly consistent among the Saccharum species that had different basic chromosome numbers or ploidy levels, thus suggesting evolutionary stability for approximately 7 million years in sugarcane. So103, So137 and So119 had unusually longer monomeric lengths that ranged from 327 to 1371 bp and lacked translational phasing on the CENH3 nucleosomes. Moreover, So103, So137 and So119 seemed to be highly similar to retrotransposons, which suggests that they originated from these mobile elements. Notably, all three repeats were flanked by direct repeats, and formed extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs). The presence of circular molecules for these retrotransposon-derived centromeric satellites suggests an eccDNA-mediated centromeric satellite formation pathway in sugarcane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15186DOI Listing
May 2021

Aptamer-functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for biosensing.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Mar 30;176:112947. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, 79968, USA; Biomedical Engineering, Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, 79968, USA; Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, 79968, USA. Electronic address:

As a class of crystalline porous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted increasing attention. Due to the nanoscale framework structure, adjustable pore size, large specific surface area, and good chemical stability, MOFs have been applied widely in many fields such as biosensors, biomedicine, electrocatalysis, energy storage and conversions. Especially when they are combined with aptamer functionalization, MOFs can be utilized to construct high-performance biosensors for numerous applications ranging from medical diagnostics and food safety inspection, to environmental surveillance. Herein, this article reviews recent innovations of aptamer-functionalized MOFs-based biosensors and their bio-applications. We first briefly introduce different functionalization methods of MOFs with aptamers, which provide a foundation for the construction of MOFs-based aptasensors. Then, we comprehensively summarize different types of MOFs-based aptasensors and their applications, in which MOFs serve as either signal probes or signal probe carriers for optical, electrochemical, and photoelectrochemical detection, with an emphasis on the former. Given recent substantial research interests in stimuli-responsive materials and the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology, we also present the stimuli-responsive aptamer-functionalized MOFs for sensing, followed by a brief overview on the integration of MOFs on microfluidic devices. Current limitations and prospective trends of MOFs-based biosensors are discussed at the end.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855766PMC
March 2021

TiC MXene mediated Prussian blue in situ hybridization and electrochemical signal amplification for the detection of exosomes.

Talanta 2021 Mar 10;224:121879. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Chemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory for Analytical Methods and Instrumentation, Kay Lab of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Exosomes carrying abundant information have aroused great interest as effective biomarkers in liquid biopsy and are therefore ideal candidates for the early diagnosis of cancer and treatment monitoring. Herein, we developed a sensitive electrochemical biosensor using in situ generation of Fe₄[Fe(CN)]₃ (Prussian Blue) on the surface of TiC MXene (two-dimensional transition-metal carbides) as hybrid nanoprobes (PB-MXene) for the detection of exosomes and their surface protein. A CD63 aptamer-modified poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM)-Au NP electrode interface was fabricated that can specifically bind with CD63 protein on the exosomes derived from OVCAR cells. In addition, the CD63-modified TiC MXene was used as a nanocarrier to accommodate numerous aptamers and was adsorbed on the exosomes. The TiC MXene can realize the in situ generation and high-efficiency loading of PB and further amplify the electrochemical signal at a low potential, thus avoiding the interference of the electrochemical active species. The dual amplification effect enables highly selective and sensitive electrochemical detection of exosomes. The limit of detection (LOD) was 229 particles μL with a linear range from 5 × 10 particles μL to 5 × 10 particles μL. An electrochemical biosensor can detect exosomes secreted by various cancer cells such as HeLa, OVCAR and BT474, and shows a high specificity even in serum samples, thus demonstrating its great potential in the application of clinical diagnostics. This proposed electrochemical biosensor provides a facile and efficient tool for the early diagnosis of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121879DOI Listing
March 2021

The retromer CSC subcomplex is recruited by MoYpt7 and sequentially sorted by MoVps17 for effective conidiation and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 02 21;22(2):284-298. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

In eukaryotic cells, Rab GTPases and the retromer complex are important regulators of intracellular protein transport. However, the mechanistic relationship between Rab GTPases and the retromer complex in relation to filamentous fungal development and pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we used Magnaporthe oryzae, an important pathogen of rice and other cereals, as a model filamentous fungus to dissect this knowledge gap. Our data demonstrate that the core retromer subunit MoVps35 interacts with the Rab GTPase MoYpt7 and they colocalize to the endosome. Without MoYpt7, MoVps35 is mislocalized in the cytoplasm, indicating that MoYpt7 plays an important role in the recruitment of MoVps35. We further demonstrate that the expression of an inactive MoYpt7-DN (GDP-bound form) mutant in M. oryzae mimicks the phenotype defects of retromer cargo-sorting complex (CSC) null mutants and blocks the proper localization of MoVps35. In addition, our data establish that MoVps17, a member of the sorting nexin family, is situated at the endosome independent of retromer CSC but regulates the sorting function of MoVps35 after its recruitment to the endosomal membrane by MoYpt7. Taken together, these results provide insight into the precise mechanism of retromer CSC recruitment to the endosome by MoYpt7 and subsequent sorting by MoVps17 for efficient conidiation and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814966PMC
February 2021

Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Coupled with a Critical-Time-Point Analysis during Pathogenesis for Predicting the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Blast Resistance in Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2020 Dec 11;13(1):81. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering for Agriculture, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, 350003, China.

Background: Rice blast, caused by the ascomycete fungus M. oryzae, is one of the most important diseases of rice. Although many blast resistance (R) genes have been identified and deployed in rice varieties, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the R gene-mediated defense responses are yet not fully understood.

Results: In this study, we used comparative transcriptomic analysis to explore the molecular mechanism involved in Piz-t-mediated resistance in a transgenic line containing Piz-t (NPB-Piz-t) compared to Nipponbare (NPB). Clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the time-point at 24-h post inoculation (hpi) was the most important factor distinguishing the four time-points, which consisted of four genes of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, one gene related to WRKY DNA-binding domain containing protein, five pathogenesis-related protein (OsPR1s) genes, and three genes of R proteins involving in the most significant protein-protein interaction (PPI) pathway. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate RNA-seq data across 0, 24, 48, and 72 hpi, nine modules with similar patterns expression pattern (SEP) and three modules with differential expression pattern (DEP) between NPB-Piz-t and NPB across 0, 24, 48, and 72 hpi with KJ201 (referred to as Piz-t-KJ201 and NPB-KJ201) were identified. Among these the most representative SEP green-yellow module is associated with photosynthesis, and DEP pink module comprised of two specific expressed nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) genes of LOC_Os06g17900 and LOC_Os06g17920 of Pi2/9 homologous, three NLR genes of LOC_Os11g11810, LOC_Os11g11770, and LOC_Os11g11920 which are putatively associated with important agronomic traits, and a B3 DNA binding domain containing protein related genes (LOC_Os10g39190). Knockout of LOC_Os10g39190 via CRISPR-Cas9 resulted in plant death at the seedling stage.

Conclusions: The research suggested that Piz-t and multiple NLR network might play important roles in the regulation of the resistance response in the Piz-t-KJ201 interaction system. The identified genes provide an NLR repository to study the rice-M. oryzae interaction system and facilitate the breeding of blast-resistant cultivars in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-020-00439-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732884PMC
December 2020
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