Publications by authors named "Zong-Bo Sun"

5 Publications

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Impaired decision-making and functional neuronal network activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 12 14;48(6):1508-1517. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear.

Purpose: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE.

Subjects: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included.

Field Strength/sequence: 1.5T, T -weighted anatomic images, gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence, and 3D images.

Assessment: The computer-based Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) for assessing decision-making was performed by SLE patients and 16 matched controls; brain activity was recorded via blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. The amplitudes of the average BOLD responses were calculated for each individual subject, and activation data from fMRI experiments were compared between the two groups.

Statistical Tests: Two-sample t-test; repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA); linear regression analyses.

Results: Imaging revealed activity in a distributed network of brain regions in both groups, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the striatum, as well as the insular, parietal, and occipital cortices. Compared to controls, SLE patients showed lower activation in a convergence zone and the limbic system, namely, the OFC, vmPFC, ACC, and PCC, but greater activation in memory, emotion, and behavior systems involving the dlPFC, the insular cortex and the striatum. Furthermore, brain activation in the vmPFC was positively correlated with IGT scores (r = 0.63, P < 0.001), but inversely related to disease activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.01).

Data Conclusion: The dynamics among the aforementioned neural systems (some hyperfunctioning, others hypofunctioning) may shed some light on the pathologic mechanisms underlying SLE without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms. In addition, disease activity may potentially be used as an effective biomarker reflecting cerebral involvement in SLE.

Level Of Evidence: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;48:1508-1517.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282848PMC
December 2018

Decision-making in primary onset middle-age type 2 diabetes mellitus: a BOLD-fMRI study.

Sci Rep 2017 08 31;7(1):10246. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, 515041, China.

Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognized risk factor for dementia, the neural mechanisms that underlying cognitive impairment in T2DM remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate the neural basis of decision making at the initial onset stage of T2DM. Eighteen newly diagnosed middle-aged T2DM patients, with no previous diabetic treatment history, and 18 matched controls were recruited. Results indicated that T2DM patients made more disadvantageous decisions than controls. Compared to healthy subjects, T2DM patients showed decreased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate cortex, and increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, insula and occipital lobes. IGT performance positively correlated with changes in brain activation in the VMPFC and OFC in both groups. Moreover, poor glycemic control was associated with decision-making function both in behavioral and brain activity in the VMPFC and OFC in patients. Conclusively, T2DM patients may suffer from weaknesses in their prefrontal cortex functions that lead to poorer decision-making under ambiguity, at least as assessed by the IGT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10228-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579021PMC
August 2017

Spatial Working Memory Impairment in Patients with Non-neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Blood-oxygen-level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

J Rheumatol 2017 02 15;44(2):201-208. Epub 2017 Jan 15.

From the Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, Shantou, Guangdong; Graduate School of Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai, China.

Objective: Using ethology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore mild cognitive dysfunction and spatial working memory (WM) impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE) and to study whether any clinical biomarkers could serve as predictors of brain dysfunction in this disease.

Methods: Eighteen non-NPSLE patients and 18 matched subjects were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test and scanned using blood-oxygen-level dependent fMRI while performing the n-back task to investigate the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas.

Results: Ethology results showed that non-NPSLE patients had mild cognitive dysfunction and memory dysfunction (p < 0.05). The fMRI scan confirmed a neural network consisting of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), premotor area, parietal lobe, and supplementary motor area (SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that was activated during the n-back task, with right hemisphere dominance. However, only the right SMA/ACC showed a load effect in the non-NPSLE group; the activation intensity of most WM-related brain areas for the non-NPSLE group was lower than for the control group under 3 memory loads. Further, we found that the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas, including the bilateral caudate nucleus/insula and hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus were lower than the control group under the memory loads. An inverse correlation existed between individual activation intensity and disease duration.

Conclusion: Non-NPSLE-related brain damage with right DLPFC-posterior parietal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus default network causes impairment of spatial WM and mild cognitive dysfunction. Patients with longer disease duration would be expected to exhibit increased central nervous system damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.160290DOI Listing
February 2017

Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric benign pneumoperitoneum: A case report series of 9 patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jan;96(2):e5814

aDepartment of Pediatric Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College bDepartment of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China.

Introduction: Benign pneumoperitoneum (BPPT) is defined as asymptomatic free intraabdominal air or as pneumoperitoneum without peritonitis. Symptomatic free air requires surgical anagement, but management of asymptomatic pneumoperitoneum is controversial. In this study, we investigate the diagnosis and treatment of BPPT in children.

Clinical Findings: The clinical data of 9 pediatric patients with BPPT who were admitted to our hospital from January 2000 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed to summarize the diagnosis and treatment. Overall, 9 cases were included with 8 males and 1 female, aged from 4 days to 4 years. Among them there were 6 newborns (including 1 premature infant). Patients were all admitted to hospital with the major clinical symptom of abdominal distension, including 2 cases accompanied by tachypnea, 2 cases with vomiting, 1 case with diarrhea, and 2 cases with fever. No previous constipation or obstructive defecation existed. Six newborns had meconium defecation within 24 hours after birth. Physical examination revealed all patients with relaxed abdominal wall except 1 patient with abdominal distension had slight muscle stiffness and hyperactive bowel sounds. Abdominal X-ray suggested free air under the diaphragm in all cases.

Interventions/outcomes: All patients except for one case of laparotomy were conservatively treated and cured with fasting, infection prevention, rehydration, abdominocentesis, and close observation. Nine cases of patients were all discharged with no death occurrence. After discharge follow-up of 7 months to 6 years was conducted. There was no recurrence of similar symptoms, and children were in good growth and development.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of BPPT mainly relies on clinical symptoms in patient, careful abdominal examination, abdominal X-ray combined with abdominocentesis, and the exclusion of gastrointestinal perforation for confirmation. Conservative treatment can cure the disease. Attention should be paid to distinguish with surgical pneumoperitoneum to avoid unnecessary surgical exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266170PMC
January 2017

Spatial working memory impairment in primary onset middle-age type 2 diabetes mellitus: An ethology and BOLD-fMRI study.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2016 Jan 11;43(1):75-87. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong Province, PR China.

Purpose: To explore mild cognitive dysfunction and/or spatial working memory impairment in patients with primary onset middle-age type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM] using ethology (behavior tests) and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI).

Materials And Methods: Eighteen primary onset T2DM patients and 18 matched subjects with normal blood glucose levels were all tested using the Montreal cognitive assessment scale test, the Wechsler Memory Scale Chinese-revised test, and scanned using BOLD-fMRI (1.5T, EPI sequence) while performing the n-back task to find the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas.

Results: The ethology results showed that T2DM patients had a mild cognitive impairment and memory dysfunction (P < 0.05). The fMRI scan identified a neural network consisting of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral premotor area (PreMA), bilateral parietal lobe (PA), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) / supplementary motor area (SMA) that was activated during the n-back task, with right hemisphere dominance. However, only the right PA and ACC/SMA showed a load effect via quantitative analysis in the T2DM group; the activation intensity of most working memory-related brain areas for the T2DM group were lower than for the control group under three memory loads. Furthermore, we found that the activation intensity of some cognition-related areas, including the right insular lobe, left caudate nucleus, and bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus were lower than the control group under the memory loads.

Conclusion: Diabetes-related brain damage of primary onset middle-age T2DM patients with right DLPFC-posterior parietal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus default network causes impairment of spatial working memory and mild cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.24967DOI Listing
January 2016
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