Publications by authors named "Zohreh Rahaei"

9 Publications

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Design and psychometric evaluation of schools' resilience tool in Emergencies and disasters: A mixed-method.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0253906. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Shahid Rahnemoun Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: In addition to their educational role, resilient schools have a good capacity in response to disasters. Due to the large student population, the schools can be a safe and secure environment during disasters, in addition to maintaining their performance after. Given the role and importance of the schools, the impact of culture and environment on resilience, without any indigenous and comprehensive tool for measuring the resilience in Iran, the study aimed to design and psychometrically evaluate the measurement tools.

Method: This study was conducted using a mixed-method sequential explanatory approach. The research was conducted in two main phases of production on items based on hybrid model and the psychometric evaluation of the tool. The second phase included validity (formal, content and construction) and reliability (multiplex internal similarity, consistency and reliability).

Result: The integration of systematic and qualitative steps resulted in entering 91 items into the pool of items. After formal and content validity, 73 items remained and 44 were omitted in exploratory factor analysis. A questionnaire with 5 factors explained 52.08% of total variance. Finally, after the confirmatory factor analysis, the questionnaire was extracted with 29 questions and 5 factors including "functional", "architectural", "equipment", "education" and "safety". Internal similarity and stability in all factors were evaluated as good.

Conclusion: The result showed that the 29-item questionnaire of school resilience in emergencies and disasters is valid and reliable, that can be used to evaluate school resilience. On the other hand, the questionnaire on assessment of school resilience in disasters enables intervention to improve its capacity.
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July 2021

Improving dental-oral health learning in students using a mobile application ("My tooth"): A controlled before and after study.

Int J Dent Hyg 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Health Technology Assessment, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objectives: Tooth decay is one of the most common problems amongst students. Despite considerable educational interventions, it is still very prevalent. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a dental-oral health mobile educational application with the common dental-oral health education amongst elementary school students.

Methods: This interventional study was carried out on 158 girl students in the age range of 10-12 years in Mobarakeh City, Iran. The participants were categorized into the intervention and control groups and investigated in the academic year of 2018-2019. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. Initially, all students completed the questionnaires. Later, the intervention group members were trained using dental-oral health mobile educational application and control group received the common dental-oral health educations in lectures and demonstrations. Two months after the last intervention, the same questionnaire was completed and data were analysed by SPSS software.

Results: Before the intervention, the mean score of behaviour was 13.69 ± 3.89 and 13.93 ± 3.02 (of 21) for the intervention and control groups. At this phase, the difference between the two groups was not significant in the studied dimensions (p > 0.05). After the intervention, mean scores of the intervention group increased significantly with regard to all variables (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Findings of this study confirmed the positive effect of learning through mobile applications on increasing the students' knowledge, attitude and performance regarding dental-oral health education.
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April 2021

Comparison of the Effect of Traffic Park-Based and School-Based Educational Interventions on Safe Road Crossing in Yazd Elementary School Students.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2021 Mar 27:272684X211004952. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Health Education, School of Health, Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Traffic accidents are one of the most important health problems that cause many deaths every year. Scientific-practical interventions are needed to prevent traffic accidents. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of traffic-based and school-based interventions on the safe road crossing in Yazd elementary school students.

Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 132 students (66 males and 66 females) in two groups of school-based and traffic park-based intervention. A questionnaire was used to determine the safe crossing behavior score. Then, an educational intervention was administered to both groups. Two months after the intervention, safe crossing behavior was evaluated in both groups. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 22.

Results: In both groups, the score of safe crossing behavior was significantly increased after the intervention. The school-based group had significantly better behaviors compared to the traffic park-based group (P=0.001). There was a significant difference in the mean score of behavior between males and females and the intervention had a greater effect on female students (P=0.017).

Conclusion: Educational interventions and especially school-based intervention can be effective in improving the students' safe crossing behaviors.
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March 2021

Operational Strategies for Establishing Disaster-Resilient Schools: A Qualitative Study.

Adv J Emerg Med 2020 1;4(2):e23. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

Introduction: Resilient schools can warranty students' health and survival at disasters. It is obligatory that schools be prepared for natural challenges through local programs. Considering the great population of students, disaster-resilient schools can be a safe and suitable environment for students at the time of disaster.

Objective: This study aims to identify certain operational strategies for establishing schools resilient to natural disasters.

Method: This qualitative study was based on conventional content analysis. Using purposive sampling method, 24 experts in the fields of health in disasters, construction engineering, psychology, teaching, and administrative management participated in the study. Maximum variation sampling continued until data saturation was achieved. The data collected via unstructured interviews were analyzed with Graneheim and Lundmen's conventional content analysis.

Results: Content analysis resulted in four main categories as operational strategies for establishing disaster-resilient schools including: 1) "construction and non-construction optimization", with four subcategories of construct risk management, optimization of construct architecture and physical structure, correct construct localization, and promotion of non-construct safety, 2) "promotion of organizational coordination and interactions" with two subcategories, namely improvement in intra-organizational communication and improvement in extra-organizational communication, 3) "improvement in education" with three subcategories of holding educational courses for families and students, holding educational courses for managers and personnel, and holding simulated exercises, and 4) "process promotion" with four subcategories of increased preparedness, correct planning, creation of organizational structure, and rehabilitation facilitation.

Conclusion: Various factors affecting schools' response to disasters form operational strategies to establish disaster-resilient schools. These strategies influence pre- and post-disaster preparedness. Awareness of these components followed by preparedness prior to disasters can save students' lives, improve school performance after disasters, and aid in establishing disaster-resilient schools as safe lodgings.
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September 2019

Assessment of school resilience in disasters: A cross-sectional study.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 30;9:15. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran.

Background And Objectives: School resilience is defined as risk-reducing strategies used to create a safe environment for students when faced natural disasters. Resilient schools, in addition to their educational role, provide a suitable capacity for responding to disasters and rehabilitation after the incidence. This study determined the level of disaster resilience of schools in Yazd, central Iran.

Materials And Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study conducted among 400 schools and 367 participants in Yazd, 2018. To collect data, we used the school resilience in disasters questionnaire (α =0.95 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.97 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-0.98]) containing 48 questions. We also analyzed the gleaned data through the Pearson correlation coefficient, one-way ANOVA, and independent -test.

Results: The total score of school disaster resilience was 153.30 ± 29.57. In these schools, the function had the highest (47.76 ± 13.96), and safety had the lowest (6.74 ± 3.18) score among all areas of school disaster resilience. There was a positive significant correlation between total resilience and areas of function, education, structural, nonstructural, architecture, commute routes, safety, location, and equipment ( < 0.001). Location had the smallest ( = 0.424) and function had the greatest ( = 0.854) correlation with total resilience.

Conclusion: It can help the school management board in assessing the level of resilience of their school and determining the priorities for disaster risk reduction. Awareness of the status of resilience can help policy-makers and experts create an effective program for increasing resilience.
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January 2020

Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

Health Promot Perspect 2015 7;5(2):138-46. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure.

Results: Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations.

Conclusion: Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.
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August 2015

Determination of preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 based on protection motivation theory among female high school students in Isfahan, Iran.

J Educ Health Promot 2014 21;3. Epub 2014 Feb 21.

Departments of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic has recently threatened the health of world's population more than ever. Non-pharmaceutical measures are important to prevent the spread of influenza A/H1N1 and to prevent a pandemic. Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing preventive behavioral. This study reports on predictors of students' preventive behaviors for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using variables based on the protection motivation theory (PMT).

Materials And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, multiple-stage randomized sampling was used to select 300 female students in Isfahan who completed a questionnaire in December 2009. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire based on PMT. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate correlations, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and linear regression.

Results: The mean age of participants was 15.62 (SE = 1.1) years old. Majority of participants were aware regarding pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (87.3%, 262 out of 300). Results showed that, protection motivation was highly significant relationship with preventive behavior and predicted 34% of its variance. We found all of the variables with the exception of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and response cost were related with protection motivation and explained 22% of its variance.

Conclusion: Promotion of students' self-efficacy, and intention to protect themselves from a health threat should be priorities of any programs aimed at promoting preventive behaviors among students. It is also concluded that the protection motivation theory may be used in developing countries, like Iran, as a framework for prevention interventions in an attempt to improve the preventive behaviors of students.
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April 2014

Impact of education on interdental cleaning behaviour based on the transtheoretical model.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2012 ;10(1):37-46

Department of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran.

Purpose: To determine the impact of education on stages of change of behaviour in Iranian senior high school students for interdental cleaning based on the transtheoretical model.

Materials And Methods: This experimental study took place from April to November 2010. 306 students were selected by multistage cluster sampling and placed into two groups: control (153 students) and intervention (153 students). Appropriate instruments and the intervention programme were designed with the purpose of improving stages of interdental cleaning behaviour, perceived benefits and self-efficacy, as well as reducing perceived barriers and gingival index (GI). The impact of the intervention programme was assessed after 24 weeks and the GI of each student was recorded for both groups before and after intervention. The data were analysed using SPSS software and the chi-square, t test, ANOVA, paired t test, Mann-Whitney U-test and sign test.

Results: The intervention had a significant, positive impact on improvement of the stages of interdental cleaning behaviour, increase in self-efficacy, perceived benefits, decrease in perceived barriers and improvement of GI (P < 0.001). After the intervention, the average grades of self-efficacy, perceived barriers and perceived benefits in the control group vs the intervention group were significantly different (P < 0.001 to 0.01).

Conclusion: The programme was found to positively influence the stages of change and potential indicators of interdental cleaning behaviour and GI. It is suggested that this model be used for interventions in the other population groups.
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August 2013

Determinants of oral health behaviors among high school students in Shahrekord, Iran based on Health Promotion Model.

J Dent Hyg 2011 1;85(1):39-48. Epub 2011 Jan 1.

School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Purpose: This paper reports on predictors of students' oral health behaviors, using variables based on the Health Promotion Model in an attempt to identify influential variables that may be addressed through intervention efforts.

Methods: A non-probability sample of 300 high school students was recruited from 4 high schools in Shahrekord City, Iran. The study took place between January and March of 2008. Appropriate instruments were used to measure the variables of interest. The statistical analysis of the data included bivariate correlations, t-test, one-way ANOVA and linear regression.

Results: The cognition variables - perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and activity-related affects, and commitment to a plan of Oral health behaviors, were significantly related to oral health behaviors among the respondents. A negative association was found between oral health behaviors and perceived barriers. Interpersonal influences, such as modeling and norms, and situational influences were found to be significantly related to increased oral health behaviors. All of the Health Promotion Model variables were statistically significant predictors of oral health behaviors, and accounted for 65.1% of the variation.

Conclusion: Promotion of interpersonal modeling and the students' perceived self-efficacy should be priorities of any programs aimed at promoting oral health behaviors among students. It is also concluded that the Health Promotion Model may be used in developing countries, like Iran, as a framework for planning intervention programs in an attempt to improve the oral health behaviors of students.
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August 2011