Publications by authors named "Zlatko Smole"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tumor suppressor NF2/Merlin is a microtubule stabilizer.

Cancer Res 2014 Jan 26;74(1):353-62. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Authors' Affiliations: Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; and Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California.

Cancer-associated mutations in oncogene products and tumor suppressors contributing to tumor progression manifest themselves, at least in part, by deregulating microtubule-dependent cellular processes that play important roles in many cell biological pathways, including intracellular transport, cell architecture, and primary cilium and mitotic spindle organization. An essential characteristic of microtubules in the performance of these varied cell processes is their ability to continuously remodel, a phenomenon known as dynamic instability. It is therefore conceivable that part of the normal function of certain cancer-causing genes is to regulate microtubule dynamic instability. Here, we report the results of a high-resolution live-cell image-based RNA interference screen targeting a collection of 70 human tumor suppressor genes to uncover cancer genes affecting microtubule dynamic instability. Extraction and computational analysis of microtubule dynamics from EB3-GFP time-lapse image sequences identified the products of the tumor suppressor genes NF1 and NF2 as potent microtubule-stabilizing proteins. Further in-depth characterization of NF2 revealed that it binds to and stabilizes microtubules through attenuation of tubulin turnover by lowering both rates of microtubule polymerization and depolymerization as well as by reducing the frequency of microtubule catastrophes. The latter function appears to be mediated, in part, by inhibition of hydrolysis of tubulin-bound GTP on the growing microtubule plus end.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3929585PMC
January 2014

Genetic deletion of the long isoform of the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene product alters microtubule dynamics.

Eur J Cancer 2013 Jul 27;49(10):2433-40. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Institute of Molecular Health Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein (pVHL) controls distinct cellular responses ranging from targeting hypoxia inducible factor α (HIFα) subunits for degradation and promotion of chromosomal stability to the regulation of microtubule dynamics. pVHL is produced in mammalian cells as a long and a short isoform, derived from alternate translational initiation sites in a single Vhl mRNA. However, it is unclear whether these isoforms have different cell biological activities that may represent different tumour suppressor activities of pVHL. Through a knock-in strategy to mutate the first translational initiation site from methionine to leucine (M1L) we have genetically deleted the pVHL long protein isoform in mice, allowing dissection of isoform-specific functions of pVHL. Vhl(M1L/M1L) mice exhibit no obvious phenotypic abnormalities. While numerous pVHL-mediated activities, including degradation of HIFα transcription factors, are unaffected, microtubule dynamics are altered in primary cells derived from Vhl(M1L/M1L) mice to an extent similar to that seen following complete loss of pVHL function. We conclude that the microtubule-regulating function and the HIFα-regulating function of pVHL are separable activities mediated by different protein isoforms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.02.024DOI Listing
July 2013

Proteomic properties reveal phyloecological clusters of Archaea.

PLoS One 2012 25;7(10):e48231. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Mediterranean Institute for Life Sciences, Split, Croatia.

In this study, we propose a novel way to describe the variety of environmental adaptations of Archaea. We have clustered 57 Archaea by using a non-redundant set of proteomic features, and verified that the clusters correspond to environmental adaptations to the archaeal habitats. The first cluster consists dominantly of hyperthermophiles and hyperthermoacidophilic aerobes. The second cluster joins together halophilic and extremely halophilic Archaea, while the third cluster contains mesophilic (mostly methanogenic) Archaea together with thermoacidophiles. The non-redundant subset of proteomic features was found to consist of five features: the ratio of charged residues to uncharged, average protein size, normalized frequency of beta-sheet, normalized frequency of extended structure and number of hydrogen bond donors. We propose this clustering to be termed phyloecological clustering. This approach could give additional insights into relationships among archaeal species that may be hidden by sole phylogenetic analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048231PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485053PMC
May 2013

Proteome sequence features carry signatures of the environmental niche of prokaryotes.

BMC Evol Biol 2011 Jan 26;11:26. Epub 2011 Jan 26.

Institute for Cell Biology, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrase 18, 8093 Zuerich, Switzerland.

Background: Prokaryotic environmental adaptations occur at different levels within cells to ensure the preservation of genome integrity, proper protein folding and function as well as membrane fluidity. Although specific composition and structure of cellular components suitable for the variety of extreme conditions has already been postulated, a systematic study describing such adaptations has not yet been performed. We therefore explored whether the environmental niche of a prokaryote could be deduced from the sequence of its proteome. Finally, we aimed at finding the precise differences between proteome sequences of prokaryotes from different environments.

Results: We analyzed the proteomes of 192 prokaryotes from different habitats. We collected detailed information about the optimal growth conditions of each microorganism. Furthermore, we selected 42 physico-chemical properties of amino acids and computed their values for each proteome. Further, on the same set of features we applied two fundamentally different machine learning methods, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests, to successfully classify between bacteria and archaea, halophiles and non-halophiles, as well as mesophiles, thermophiles and mesothermophiles. Finally, we performed feature selection by using Random Forests.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first time that three different classification cases (domain of life, halophilicity and thermophilicity) of proteome adaptation are successfully performed with the same set of 42 features. The characteristic features of a specific adaptation constitute a signature that may help understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to extreme environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045906PMC
January 2011

Quantitative image analysis identifies pVHL as a key regulator of microtubule dynamic instability.

J Cell Biol 2010 Sep;190(6):991-1003

Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland.

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene mutations predispose carriers to kidney cancer. The protein pVHL has been shown to interact with microtubules (MTs), which is critical to cilia maintenance and mitotic spindle orientation. However, the function for pVHL in the regulation of MT dynamics is unknown. We tracked MT growth via the plus end marker EB3 (end-binding protein 3)-GFP and inferred additional parameters of MT dynamics indirectly by spatiotemporal grouping of growth tracks from live cell imaging. Our data establish pVHL as a near-optimal MT-stabilizing protein: it attenuates tubulin turnover, both during MT growth and shrinkage, inhibits catastrophe, and enhances rescue frequencies. These functions are mediated, in part, by inhibition of tubulin guanosine triphosphatase activity in vitro and at MT plus ends and along the MT lattice in vivo. Mutants connected to the VHL cancer syndrome are differentially compromised in these activities. Thus, single cell-level analysis of pVHL MT regulatory function allows new predictions for genotype to phenotype associations that deviate from the coarser clinically defined mutant classifications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201006059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3101603PMC
September 2010

Unstructured hydrophilic sequences in prokaryotic proteomes correlate with dehydration tolerance and host association.

J Mol Biol 2010 Oct 13;402(5):775-82. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1001, Université Paris Descartes, Faculté de Médecine, 156 rue de Vaugirard, 75730 Paris Cedex 15, France.

Water loss or desiccation is among the most life-threatening stresses. It leads to DNA double-strand breakage, protein aggregation, cell shrinkage, and low water activity precluding all biological functions. Yet, in all kingdoms of life, rare organisms are resistant to desiccation through prevention or reversibility of such damage. Here, we explore possible hallmarks of prokaryotic desiccation tolerance in their proteomes. The content of unstructured, low complexity (LC) regions was analyzed in a total of 460 bacterial and archaeal proteomes. It appears that species endowed with proteomes abundant in unstructured hydrophilic LC regions are desiccation-tolerant or sporulating bacteria, halophilic archaea and bacteria, or host-associated species. In the desiccation- and radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, most proteins that contain large hydrophilic LC regions have unassigned function, but those with known function are mostly involved in diverse cellular recovery processes. Such LC regions are typically absent in orthologous proteins in desiccation-sensitive species. D. radiodurans encodes also special LC proteins, akin to those associated with desiccation resistance of plant seeds and some plants and animals. Therefore, we postulate that large unstructured hydrophilic LC regions and proteins provide for cellular resistance to dehydration and we discuss mechanisms of their protective activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2010.08.012DOI Listing
October 2010